1. Family: Apiaceae Lindl.
    1. Torilis Adans.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Europe, Africa and Asia-Temperate..

    [FZ]

    Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Bracts
    Bracts present or absent, rays 2 to numerous (obsolete in subcapitate species).
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles narrowly subulate.
    Calyx
    Calyx teeth small.
    Corolla
    Petals white to pinkish, with an inflexed apex; outer petals radiate in some species.
    Stylopodium
    Stylopodium shortly conical.
    Fruits
    More rarely the spines of 1 or both mericarps replaced with tubercles. Fruit ovoid to linear; primary ribs filiform, covered with spiny bristles; secondary ribs indistinct in intervals between the primary ribs, with numerous glochidiate spines.
    Carpophore
    Carpophore 2-cleft at the apex or split to one half of its length.
    Vittae
    Vittae solitary in the intervals and 2 in the commissural face.
    Seeds
    Seed dorsally flattened, with a concave face towards the commissure, lateral margins of the endosperm not incurved.
    Habit
    Erect or procumbent annual (or rarely biennial) herbs with obvious tap roots.
    Leaves
    Leaves pinnate to 3-pinnate with sheathing petioles.
    Inflorescences
    Umbels compound (sub-capitate in some species), terminal and lateral.
    [FTEA]

    Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Annual herbs with a ± slender taproot, ± setulose-hairy
    Leaves
    Leaves 1–2-pinnate with sharply toothed pinnatifid leaflets
    Inflorescences
    Umbels numerous, compound, pedunculate to sessile; involucre various, of several bracts or only one, or absent; involucel of several narrow bracteoles
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous with some ♂ flowers
    Calyx
    Calyx-teeth present, sometimes conspicuous, sometimes small and ± concealed by the prickles in fruit
    Corolla
    Petals white to purple, the outer sometimes radiant and obcordate, otherwise all emarginate above with an incurved lobule
    Fruits
    Fruit ovoid to oblong, somewhat laterally compressed, with a rather narrow commissure; primary ribs slender, filiform, with longitudinally appressed setulose hairs; secondary ribs low, furnished with numerous, slender, tuberculate, glochidiate-tipped spines, or sometimes one (rarely both) mericarps with shorter or tuberculiform spines only; stylopodia conical, short; vittae solitary beneath each secondary rib, 2 on the commissure; carpophore entire or commonly shortly bifid
    Seeds
    Endosperm shallowly horseshoe-shaped in section, terete dorsally or with shallow grooves beneath the vittae.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Angola, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Libya, Madeira, Malawi, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Netherlands, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Chile Central, Delaware, Florida, Haiti, Hawaii, Illinois, Juan Fernández Is., Kentucky, Mauritius, Mexico Northeast, New Mexico, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Oregon, Peru, Réunion, St.Helena, Tennessee, Uruguay

    Torilis Adans. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fam. Pl. 2: 99 (1763)

    Accepted by

    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fam. 2: 99 (1763).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fam. Pl. 2: 99 (1763).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fam.Pl. 2: 99 (1763)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0