1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Leptothrium Kunth
      1. Leptothrium senegalense (Kunth) Clayton

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Cape Verde to Egypt and Tanzania, Arabian Peninsula to India (Gujarat).

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Short-lived perennial forming tough bunches; culms 10–60 cm. high, thin, wiry, ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrow, flat or often rolled, 2–10 cm. long, 1–3 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 2–17 cm. long, the clusters ± distant on its wavy main axis, brightly coloured purple and light green; peduncle cuneate, flattened, 1–5 mm. long, ciliate with hooked hairs on the margins, the spikelets paired (sometimes solitary) and side by side on its truncate top.
    Spikelets
    First spikelet:lower (outer) glume narrowly lanceolate, 2.5–8 mm. long, coriaceous, flattened, ± caudate-acuminate, sharply recurved, the margins ciliate with hooked hairs above; upper glume oblong to narrowly oblong in side view, 3–5.5 mm. long, densely tuberculate and often spinulose, pectinate with hooked spines near one margin, rostrate at the tip; lemma 1.6 mm. long. Second spikelet (when present):lower (inward) glume narrowly lanceolate, 2.5–4 mm. long, loosely clasping the upper glume, tuberculate-spinulose; upper glume lanceolate in side view, 3–5 mm. long, tuberculate-spinulose, rostrate above with a crest of hooked prickles; lemma 1.5 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 109, p. 403.
    Habitat
    Deciduous bushland (typically Acacia, Commiphora) and subdesert grassland; sea-level to 1500 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K4 K6 K7 T2 T3 U1 Senegal to Pakistan
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Ecology
    On dry soils.
    Habit
    Perennial, forming tough wiry bunches
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; short-lived; caespitose. Culms geniculately ascending; 10-60 cm long; wiry. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades 2-10 cm long; 1-3 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes numerous; borne along a central axis; in a multilateral false spike; spreading; cuneate; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each. Central inflorescence axis 2-17 cm long. Rhachis obsolete; deciduous from axis. Raceme-bases cuneate; 1-5 mm long; pilose; hairy on margins. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 2 in the cluster; subequal, or the upper smaller (lower glume of one spikelet usually enlarged, rarely equalling upper glume or the latter also enlarged).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear to lanceolate; laterally compressed; gibbous; 2.5-8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear to lanceolate; laterally compressed; gibbous; 2.5-8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; with lower narrower than upper, or with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; recurved at apex. Lower glume lanceolate; 2.4-8 mm long; 1-2 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume surface convex, or flat; smooth, or tuberculate. Lower glume margins ciliate (hooked hairs). Lower glume apex acute, or caudate. Upper glume oblong; gibbous; 3-5.5 mm long; 2-4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliate (hooked hairs). Upper glume surface tuberculate. Upper glume apex caudate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 1.5 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma margins ciliolate; hairy above. Lemma apex acute. Palea 0.3-0.5 length of lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.2 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; laterally compressed; biconvex; 2 mm long. Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, northeast tropical, and east tropical. Asia-temperate: western Asia and Arabia. Asia-tropical: India.
    Reference
    Cynodonteae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Burkina, Cape Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen

    Leptothrium senegalense (Kunth) Clayton appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Raimond, F.M. [4], Somalia K000255477 isotype

    First published in Kew Bull. 27: 151 (1972)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Kew Bull. ined. (1972).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • W. D. Clayton in Kew Bulletin 27: 151 (1972)
    • W.D. Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 413 (1972).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0