1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Lolium L.
      1. Lolium multiflorum Lam.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Sahara, Medit. to Central Asia and Himalaya.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    A caespitose annual or biennial.
    Culms
    Culms 30-80(100) cm. tall, 2-5-noded, sometimes solitary, simple or branched below, erect or geniculately ascending, smooth or scaberulous beneath the inflorescence.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths prominently striate, dorsally rounded, tight at first, later somewhat loose, smooth or more rarely scaberulous, glabrous.
    Ligules
    Ligule 1-2 mm. long, membranous.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae 6-25 x 0·4-1 cm., linear, tapering to a fine soft point, with narrow auricles at the base, involute in young shoots, smooth and glossy on the lower and often scaberulous on the upper surface.
    Inflorescences
    Spikes 10-30 cm. long, erect or sometimes nodding, rather compressed, often tinged with purple; rhachis usually scabrous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 7·5-25 mm. long, 5-15-flowered, elliptic-oblong to obovate-oblong in lateral view, glabrous.
    Glume
    Superior glume much shorter than the spikelet, 4-7-nerved, narrowly oblong or lanceolate-oblong, obtuse to acute.
    Superior
    Superior glume much shorter than the spikelet, 4-7-nerved, narrowly oblong or lanceolate-oblong, obtuse to acute.
    Lemma
    Lemmas 5-8 mm. long, 5-nerved, awned, imbricate, oblong to lanceolate-oblong, with the apex obtuse and 2-dentate; awn up to 10 mm. long, straight, slender.
    Palea
    Paleas scaberulous along the keels.
    Anthers
    Anthers 3-4·5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis 3-3·5 mm. long.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Culms erect, or decumbent; 30-90 cm long. Leaf-sheath oral hairs lacking. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long. Leaf-blades 6-25 cm long; 4-10 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; bilateral; 10-30 cm long. Rhachis semiterete. Spikelet packing adaxial; 1 their length apart; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 5-15 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 7.5-25 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 5-15 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 7.5-25 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; persistent; shorter than spikelet; similar to fertile lemma in texture. Upper glume lanceolate; coriaceous; without keels; 4-7 -veined. Upper glume surface smooth. Upper glume apex obtuse, or acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong; 5-8 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn 5-10 mm long overall. Palea keels scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Hilum linear.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: north-central. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America. Antarctic: Subantarctic islands.
    Reference
    Poeae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Azores, Baleares, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Chad, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Egypt, France, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Mauritania, Morocco, North Caucasus, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Sahara, Yemen, Yugoslavia

    Extinct in:

    Jawa

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Bahamas, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Crozet Is., Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greenland, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Kerguelen, Korea, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yukon, Zimbabwe

    Lolium multiflorum Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Clayton, W.D. [4298], Brazil K001077709
    Clayton, W.D. [4400], Brazil K001077711
    Hatschbach, G. [28471], Brazil K001077723
    Reitz [7846], Brazil K001077708
    Kummrow, R. [3098], Brazil K001077706
    Kummrow, R. [127], Brazil K001077718
    Kummrow, R. [2338], Brazil K001077722
    Smith, L.B. [12947], Brazil K001077710
    Paciornik, E.F. [169], Brazil K001077721
    Rigo, G. [s.n.], Italy K000913362
    Cordeiro, J. [975], Brazil K001077707
    Dombrowski, L.T. [2073], Brazil K001077712
    Dombrowski, L.T. [1918], Brazil K001077713
    Dombrowski, L.T. [1041], Brazil K001077714
    Dombrowski, L.T. [2785], Brazil K001077715
    Dombrowski, L.T. [1966], Brazil K001077719
    Gay, J.E. [s.n.] K000913360
    Ferreira, L.F. [127], Brazil K001077716
    Ferreira, L.F. [70], Brazil K001077717
    Braun, A.C.H. [s.n.] K000913358
    Braun, A.C.H. [s.n.], Germany K000913361
    Thuillier, J.L. [s.n.], France K000913359
    Wasum, R. [6422], Brazil K001077720
    Bouly de Lesdain, M. [s.n.], France K000913357
    Uechtritz, R.F.C. [s.n.], Poland K000913356

    First published in Fl. Franç. 3: 621 (1779)

    Accepted by

    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
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    • Sunil, C.N. & Abdul Jaleel, V. (2013). Lolium multiflorum (Poaceae): A new record for Peninsular India Rheedea 23: 52-54.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sunil, C.N. & Abdul Jaleel, V. (2013). Lolium multiflorum (Poaceae): A new record for Peninsular India Rheedea 23: 52-54.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Sumadijaya, A. (2011). An account of the non-bambusoid alien grasses (Poaceae) in java, one century after first records by Backer Folia Malaysiana 12: 47-68.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Chilton, L. (2010). Plant list for Lesvos, slightly revised 1998-2009: 1-36. Marengo, Hunstanton, England.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Siberia 2: 1-362. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. I. Pteridophyta à Rosaceae Candollea 47: 113-179.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
    • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0