1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Mnesithea Kunth
      1. Mnesithea laevis (Retz.) Kunth

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to NW. Pacific.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Culms erect; 50-100 cm long. Culm-internodes solid. Lateral branches ample. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 8-35 cm long; 3-5 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Racemes 1; single; smoothly terete; 10-20 cm long. Rhachis subcylindrical and excavated. Spikelet packing abaxial. Rhachis internodes cuneate; 3-5 mm long. Rhachis internode tip transverse; crateriform. Spikelets sunken; in threes (or paired towards tip of raceme). Fertile spikelets sessile; 2 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels fused to internode; united at tip; linear.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets rudimentary; orbicular; dorsally compressed; 0.5-1 mm long; shorter than fertile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely. Companion sterile spikelets rudimentary; orbicular; dorsally compressed; 0.5-1 mm long; shorter than fertile.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 3.5-5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; indurate; without keels. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume oblong; cartilaginous; without keels. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; hyaline. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 2.5-4 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 2.5-3 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; biconvex; 2 mm long.
    Distribution
    Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, and Malesia. Pacific: northwestern.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. Bor.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Maluku, Marianas, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nicobar Is., Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Mnesithea laevis (Retz.) Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 23, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [19253], Thailand K000620177
    Jan 23, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [19584], Thailand K000620178
    Jan 23, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [19584], Thailand K000620179
    Jan 23, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [19584], Thailand K000620180
    Jan 23, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [19649], Thailand K000620181
    Jan 23, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [19649], Thailand K000620182
    Jan 23, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [19649], Thailand K000620183
    Jan 23, 2009 Put [2239], Thailand K000620184
    Jan 12, 1933 Wight, R. [1722], India K001057026 Unknown type material
    Jan 12, 1933 Wight, R. [1722], India K001057028 Unknown type material
    Jan 12, 1933 Röttler, J.P. [s.n.], India K000246049 Unknown type material
    Jan 12, 1933 Koenig, J.G. [s.n.] K001057027 Unknown type material
    Kerr, A.F.G. [13508], Thailand K000620170
    Kerr, A.F.G. [13508], Thailand K000620171
    Kerr, A.F.G. [13508], Thailand K000620172
    Kerr, A.F.G. [13085], Thailand K000620173
    Kerr, A.F.G. [13085], Thailand K000620174
    Kerr, A.F.G. [14720], Thailand K000620175
    Kerr, A.F.G. [14720], Thailand K000620176
    van Beusekom, C.F. [1192], Thailand K000648032
    Smitinand, T. [5960], Thailand K000648033
    Cuming, H. [1339], Philippines K000290028 isotype
    Laegaard, S. [21657], Thailand K000648034
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8873], India K001131707
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8873], India K001131708
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8873], Myanmar K001131709
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8873], Myanmar K001131710
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8873] K001131703
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8873], India K001131704
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8873], India K001131705
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8873] K001131706

    First published in Révis. Gramin. 1: 154 (1829)

    Accepted by

    • Veldkamp, J.F. & al. (2013). A revision of Mnesithea (Gramineae - Rottboelliinae) in Malesia and Thailand Blumea 58: 277-292.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Veldkamp, J.F. & al. (2013). A revision of Mnesithea (Gramineae - Rottboelliinae) in Malesia and Thailand Blumea 58: 277-292.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0