1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Oplismenus P.Beauv.
      1. Oplismenus compositus (L.) P.Beauv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Habit
    Rambling perennial with lanceolate to narrowly ovate leaf laminae.
    Culms
    Culms 15–150 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes up to 11 cm. long, the spikelet pairs distant.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2.5–4 mm. long, glabrous to pubescent; awns smooth and sticky, the longest in each pair of spikelets 3–10 mm.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Culms prostrate; 15-150 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Leaf-sheaths pilose. Ligule a ciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base asymmetrical. Leaf-blades lanceolate, or ovate; 2-16 cm long; 8-35 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation with obscure cross veins. Leaf-blade apex acuminate, or acute (bluntly).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 4-12; borne along a central axis; unilateral; 2.5-11 cm long (lowest). Central inflorescence axis 5-25 cm long. Rhachis angular; glabrous on surface, or pilose on surface. Spikelet packing lax; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in the cluster; subequal, or the lower smaller. Pedicels oblong.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.5-4 mm long; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 2.5-4 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes similar, or dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 1 length of upper glume; 0.5-0.75 length of spikelet; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 5 -veined. Lower glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex acute; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 3-10 mm long; viscid. Upper glume ovate; herbaceous; 1-keeled; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Upper glume apex obtuse; muticous, or awned. Upper glume awn 0-4 mm long.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 1-keeled; 7-11 -veined; glabrous, or pubescent; emarginate; mucronate. Fertile lemma oblong; dorsally compressed; 2-2.5 mm long; coriaceous; shiny; without keel; 7 -veined. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute; laterally pinched. Palea involute; coriaceous; without keels.
    Fruits
    Hilum linear; 0.5 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa: northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, northern South America, and western South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. SAR 2002.
    Diagnostic
    Spikelet pairs 4-12mm apart.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial with rambling culms 15–150 cm. long.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades narrowly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 2–15 cm. long, 8–25 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 5–25 cm. long, the lower raceme 2.5–11 cm. long, its rhachis glabrous to loosely pilose, the spikelet pairs ± distant.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets lanceolate, 2.5–4 mm. long, glabrous to pubescent; glumes with smooth viscid awns, the longest in each pair of spikelets 3–10 mm.
    Figures
    Fig. 129.
    Habitat
    In forest shade; 0–2300 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U3 Z Yemen, Ethiopia, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe and Mozambique, extending eastward through India, eastern Asia and Australia to Polynesia

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Brazil South, Burundi, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Georgia, Guatemala, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, Seychelles, Socotra, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cook Is., Galápagos, Hawaii, Tonga, Victoria

    Oplismenus compositus (L.) P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 Festo et al. [2881], Tanzania K000449727
    Jul 1, 2002 Merrill, E.D. [204], Philippines K000290286 neotype
    Dec 21, 1931 s.coll. [1279], India K000245214
    Hinton, G.B. [2051], México State K000476111
    Hinton, G.B. [2237], México State K000476113
    Hinton, G.B. [2490], México State K000476114
    Hinton, G.B. [2366], México State K000476115
    Hinton, G.B. [1882a], México State K000476116
    Hinton, G.B. [5265], México State K000476117
    Hinton, G.B. [1952], México State K000476112
    Kerr, A.F.G. [13805], Thailand K000620705
    Kerr, A.F.G. [14083], Thailand K000620706
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3973], Thailand K000620718
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19819], Thailand K000620719
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19819], Thailand K000620720
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11482], Thailand K000620721
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11482], Thailand K000620722
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11798], Thailand K000620723
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11798], Thailand K000620724
    Kerr, A.F.G. [867], Thailand K000620725
    Kerr, A.F.G. [867], Thailand K000620726
    Kerr, A.F.G. [4511], Thailand K000620727
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11171], Thailand K000620728
    Kerr, A.F.G. [17985], Thailand K000620729
    Sorensen, Th. [5278], Thailand K000682719
    Sorensen, Th. [5283], Thailand K000682720
    Larsen, K. [34388], Thailand K000682708
    van Beusekom, C.F. [3296], Thailand K000682711
    van Beusekom, C.F. [3506], Thailand K000682712
    van Beusekom, C.F. [3610], Thailand K000682713
    van Beusekom, C.F. [3712], Thailand K000682714
    van Beusekom, C.F. [4424], Thailand K000682715
    van Beusekom, C.F. [1923], Thailand K000682717
    Geesink, R. [7721], Thailand K000682728
    Smitinand, T. [1850], Thailand K000682722
    Put [2117], Thailand K000620707
    Put [4306], Thailand K000620708
    Put [4367], Thailand K000620709
    Put [441], Thailand K000620710
    Put [4367], Thailand K000620711
    Put [1186], Thailand K000620712
    Put [4514], Thailand K000620713
    Put [4514], Thailand K000620714
    Put [2665], Thailand K000620715
    Put [3191], Thailand K000620716
    Put [3191], Thailand K000620717
    Liebmann [372], Mexico K000309091
    Liebmann [41], Mexico K000309092
    Collins, D.J. [1921], Thailand K000620730
    Chantaranothai [90/748], Thailand K000682729
    Hosseus, C.C. [305], Thailand K000682730
    Phengklai, C. [590], Thailand K000682726
    Phengklai, C. [659], Thailand K000682727
    Sangkhachand, B. [1455], Thailand K000682706
    Sangkhachand, B. [548], Thailand K000682723
    Bunchuai, K. [1003], Thailand K000682724
    Johnston, H. H. [s.n.], Mauritius K000244785
    Laegaard, S. [21782], Thailand K000682710
    Phusomsaeng, S. [7], Thailand K000682707
    Timberlake, J. [6010], Malawi K000614755
    Lakshnahara, M.C. [s.n.], Thailand K000620731
    Phloenchit [903], Thailand K000682721
    Phloenchit [403], Thailand K000682731
    Bunpheng, D. [457], Thailand K000682725
    md Haniff [3643], Thailand K000682732
    md Haniff [3911], Thailand K000682733
    Laegaard [21645A], Thailand K000682709
    Lazarides. M. [7411], Thailand K000682716
    Takawa, M. [T 325], Thailand K000682718
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000674319
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000674320
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000245212
    s.coll. [1651], India K000674321
    s.coll. [1651], India K000245213
    s.coll. [913], Sri Lanka K000674322
    s.coll. [1651], India K000674323
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8676], Nepal Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131181
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8676], Myanmar Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131182
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8676] Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131184
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8676], Myanmar Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131185
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8676], Myanmar Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131183
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8676] Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131180
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8676] Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131174
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8676] Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131175
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8676] Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131176
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8676], India Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131177
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8676] Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131178
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8676] Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131179
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8676] Oplismenus lanceolatus K001131186

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 54 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0