1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Avicennia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    General
    Characters as for the family.
    Distribution
    A widespread genus with 3–6(12) species (fide Verdcourt ) tropical Africa, Asia, Oceania and America.  It is represented by a single species along the east coast of Africa, including the Seychelles, the Comoros, the Mozambique Channel Islands, Mada
    Note
    Characters as for the family.
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Shrubs or small trees of the mangrove zone; pneumatophores present; nodes swollen
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, lanceolate to elliptic, decussate, coriaceous, entire; stipules absent
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile, yellow to orange in terminal and axillary often capitate cymes, regular, subtended by an involucre of 1 scale-like bract and 2 scale-like bracteoles
    Calyx
    Calyx deeply 5-lobed; lobes ovate, imbricate
    Corolla
    Corolla-tube shortly campanulate; lobes 4, ovate
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at the throat, equal or slightly didynamous, alternating with the lobes
    Pistil
    Ovary with free central placentation; ovules 4, pendulous; style shortly divided
    Fruits
    Capsule broadly ellipsoid, compressed, opening by 2(–4) thick valves; usually only 1 erect seed; embryo with large longitudinally folded cotyledons and villous radicle, viviparous; endosperm fleshy.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Aruba, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    California

    Avicennia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Edwards, P.J. [4020], New Guinea 70602.000
    Edwards, P.J. [4020], New Guinea K000260987
    Carvalho, A.M. [37], Brazil K001046331
    Moura, O.T. [s.n.], Brazil K001046334
    Moura, O.T. [244], Brazil K001046333
    Puradyatmika, P. [10407], New Guinea K000260986
    Araújo, A.P. [390], Brazil K001046332
    Martins, V.S. [7], Brazil K001046330

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 1-529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 7: 123, 179, 259 (1960).
    • —F.T.A. 5: 331
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 144, fig. 21 (1992).
    • Verdcourt in F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 144, fig. 21 (1992).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 126 (1983).
    • in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 126 (1983).
    • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60 : 149–154 (1973)
    • Moldenke in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 149–154 (1973)
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 49 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 126 (1983) (very full references)
    • Jafri, Fl. W. Pakistan 49, Avicenniac. (1973)
    • Moldenke in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 149–154 (1973)
    • Biswas in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edin. 18: 159–166, tt. 243–246 (1934)
    • Bakhuizen van den Brink in Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., sér. 3, 3: 199–226, tt. 14–22 (1921)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 49 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 110 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0