1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Phalaris L.
      1. Phalaris arundinacea L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Northern Hemisphere to Tropical Mountains. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders and as a medicine.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa y cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 2000 - 4000 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial from scaly creeping rhizomes.
    Culms
    Culms 50–150 cm. tall.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades up to 20 cm. long and 15 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 7–40 cm. long, dense, lobed or interrupted, with short branches up to 5 cm. long, these spreading at anthesis but otherwise contracted about the main axis.
    Spikelets
    Glumes 3.5–7.5 mm. long, acute, wingless or with a very narrow and inconspicuous wing on the keel; sterile florets 2, subulate, 1.2–2.3 mm. long, villous; fertile floret lanceolate, 2.7–4.5 mm. long, dull yellow to grey-brown, sparsely pubescent.
    Figures
    Fig. 32.
    Habitat
    Stream banks, swamp margins and damp hollows in the uplands; 1950–3000 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K6 T2 N. temperate regionsnow introduced to most parts of the world
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated; scaly. Culms erect; 50-150 cm long. Leaves cauline. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 6-10 mm long. Leaf-blades 10-20 cm long; 5-15 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted; linear; interrupted; 7-40 cm long; 1-4 cm wide. Primary panicle branches appressed; 1-5 cm long. Panicle branches scabrous. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear; tip cupuliform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 3.5-7.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 3.5-7.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 3.5-7.5 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; wingless; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface asperulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; 3.5-7.5 mm long; 1.3-1.6 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; wingless; 3 -veined. Upper glume surface asperulous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets similar; barren; without significant palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate; 1.2-2.3 mm long; 0.4-0.5 length of fertile lemma; membranous; pilose. Fertile lemma ovate; laterally compressed; 2.7-4.5 mm long; cartilaginous; yellow to dark brown; shiny; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma surface pubescent. Lemma apex acute. Palea cartilaginous; 2 -veined; without keels. Palea surface pubescent; hairy on back.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; membranous. Anthers 3; 2.5-3 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp. Hilum linear.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Siberia, Soviet far east, Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, China, Mongolia, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India and Malesia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: Subarctic, western Canada, eastern Canada, northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Brazil and southern South America.
    Reference
    Aveneae. CEH.
    [UPB]

    The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

    Ecology
    Alt. 2000 - 4000 m.
    Habit
    Herb.
    Distribution
    Native and cultivated in Colombia.
    Conservation
    Not Evaluated.
    [UPB]
    Medicines
    Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).
    Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
    Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Altay, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Illinois, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Lebanon-Syria, Madagascar, Magadan, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Myanmar, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Pennsylvania, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Yukon

    Extinct in:

    Jawa

    Introduced into:

    Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Brazil South, Cape Provinces, Colombia, Egypt, Free State, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Mauritius, Nansei-shoto, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Northern Provinces, Peru, South Australia, Tasmania, Uruguay, Victoria, Western Australia

    Phalaris arundinacea L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2009 Bosser, J. [9264], Reunion K001065331
    Jan 1, 2009 Dieterten, A. [1183] K001065332
    Aug 1, 1991 Matthew, K. [RHT 53085], India K001065285
    Dec 1, 1967 Liebenberg, L.C.C. [370], Uganda K001065321
    Dec 1, 1967 Snowdon, J.D. [1457A], Uganda K001065320
    Jan 1, 1967 Napper, D. [1682], Tanzania K001065327
    Jan 1, 1947 Ram, B. [20620], Pakistan K001065284
    Greenway, P.J. [14543], Kenya K001065314
    Greenway, P.J. [9564], Kenya K001065315
    Gillett, J.B. [5356], Ethiopia K001065298
    Sandwith, N.Y. [5536], Spain K001064327
    Drummond [s.n.], Saskatchewan K001065417
    Davis [23264], Turkey K001065223
    Davis [24278], Turkey K001065224
    Davis [D32481], Turkey K001065225
    Davis [43845], Turkey K001065226
    Davis [47283], Turkey K001065227
    Davis [45749], Turkey K001065228
    Hubbard, C.E. [11940], Great Britain K000838005
    Hubbard, C.E. [s.n.], Sweden K001064259
    Hubbard, C.E. [13286], Sweden K001064262
    Turrill, W.B. [268], Greece K001064329
    Tanner, R. [3270], Tanzania K001065328
    Mooney, H.F. [7013], Ethiopia K001065302
    Bogdan, A. [AB 5222], Kenya K001065304
    Bogdan, A. [AB 2159], Kenya K001065306
    Bogdan, A. [AB 2836], Kenya K001065308
    Thomas, A.S. [1192], Uganda K001065319
    Brummitt, R.K. [20802], Russian Far East K001065249
    Raynal, J. [19559], Tanzania K001065325
    Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [s.n.], Netherlands K001064307
    Furse, P. [2811], Iran K001065216
    Furse, P. [8655], Afghanistan K001065220
    Wood, J.R.I. [4301], Colombia K001065404
    Verdcourt, B. [876], Kenya K001065318
    Thulin, M. [1474], Ethiopia K001065300
    Greenway, P.G. [9147], Tanzania K001065326
    Edwards, S. [36], Ethiopia K001065299
    Duthie, J.F. [13933], Pakistan K001065283
    Maries [s.n.], Japan K001065258
    Davidse, G. [7082], Kenya K001065307
    Maximowicz [s.n.], Japan K001065264
    Krassnow [s.n.], Kazakhstan K001065271
    Faber, E. [s.n.], China K001065274
    Schmidt [s.n.], India K001065287
    Falconer [s.n.], India K001065288
    Fischer [s.n.], Russian Federation K001065238
    Gammie, G.A. [s.n.], Pakistan K001065282
    Vasak, V. [s.n.], Armenia K001065250
    Lindley [1000], Colombia K001065405
    Meebold, A. [s.n.], Germany K001064280
    Steward, A.N. [2528], China K001065276
    Drummond, J.R. [14363], Pakistan K001065280
    Coe, M. [701], Kenya K001065303
    Clark, C.B. [29145], Pakistan K001065279
    Billot, C. [2162], Italy K001064323
    Kralik, J.L. [s.n.], Corse K000838001
    Frame, G.W. [187], Tanzania K001065322
    McDonald, J. [884], Kenya K001065310
    Salter, T.M. [9171], South Africa K001065334
    Salter, T.M. [9170], South Africa K001065335
    Faurie [10898], Japan K001065260
    Faurie [8519], Japan K001065261
    Faurie [1217], Japan K001065262
    Phillips, S.M. [1], Ethiopia K001065297
    Fang, W.P. [4401], China K001065275
    Hennipman, E. [507], Turkey K001065230
    Edwards, D.C. [2836/9], Kenya K001065311
    Edwards, D.C. [1804], Kenya K001065312
    Swartz [s.n.], Germany K001064277
    Gamble, J.S. [s.n.], France K001064312
    Brummitt [6144], Italy K001064326
    Smeds, H. [1338 B], Ethiopia K001065301
    Cowan [1500], Iran K001065215
    Savatier, L. [1435], Japan K001065266
    Komarov, V. [141], Korea K001065278
    Komarov, V. [4553], Russian Federation K001065234
    Komarov, V. [s.n.], Russian Federation K001065237
    Haradjian, M. [3283], Syria K001065231
    Haradjian, M. [4205], Syria K001065232
    Matthew, K. [RHT 49065], India K001065286
    Koelz, W. [15691], Iran K001065214
    HGT [1124], Greece K001064330
    Murata, G. [18070], Japan K001065263
    Ahlberg, F. [s.n.], Sweden K001064265
    Maximowicz, C.J. [s.n.], China K001065267
    Jacobs, S. [3220], New South Wales K001065295
    Mameev, S. [877], Russian Federation K001065248
    Furuse, M. [27606], Japan K001065251
    Furuse, M. [37247], Japan K001065252
    Furuse, M. [37247], Japan K001065253
    Furuse, M. [32402], Japan K001065254
    Furuse, M. [6074], Japan K001065255
    Favrat, L. [s.n.], Switzerland K001064295
    Chuwa, S. [2725], Tanzania K001065323
    Chuwa, S. [89016/E], Tanzania K001065324
    Schrenk [s.n.], Mali K001065240
    Dudley [36085], Turkey K001065229
    Barney, R.W. [1139], Kenya K001065305
    Dorsett, P.H. [3500], China K001065270
    Schrenck [s.n.], Russian Federation K001065239
    Schrenck [s.n.], Russian Federation K001065241
    James, H.E.M. [s.n.], China K001065272
    James, H.E.M. [s.n.], China K001065273
    Oldham, R. [645], Japan K001065259
    Cowdry, N.H. [1796], China K001065269
    Kharkevich, S. [1068], Russian Federation K001065235
    Pouzolz, P.M.C.de [s.n.], Corse K000808999
    Black, R.A. [s.n.], Victoria K001065294
    Oberneder [4148], Germany K001064276
    Lacroix, F. [2281], France K001064316
    Glover, G. [1042], Kenya K001065313
    Fellman, N.I. [304], Finland K001064271
    Hubbard, J.C.E. [D3], New Zealand K001065296
    Daveau, J. [5329], France K000808996
    Serafino, E. [125], Corse K000809000
    s.coll. [55], Great Britain K000838004
    s.coll. [s.n.], Norway K001064252
    s.coll. [s.n.], Sweden K001064257
    s.coll. [1037], Finland K001064272
    s.coll. [s.n.], Russian Federation K001064273
    s.coll. [802], Russian Federation K001064275
    s.coll. [s.n.], Germany K001064279
    s.coll. [s.n.], Germany K001064285
    s.coll. [s.n.], Austria K001064288
    s.coll. [s.n.], Austria K001064289
    s.coll. [s.n.], Switzerland K001064292
    s.coll. [s.n.], Switzerland K001064293
    s.coll. [s.n.], Switzerland K001064294
    s.coll. [s.n.], France K001064309
    s.coll. [s.n.], France K001064310
    s.coll. [s.n.], France K001064311
    s.coll. [s.n.], France K001064315
    s.coll. [s.n.], France K001064319
    s.coll. [s.n.], Italy K001064324
    s.coll. [531], Mexico K001065403
    s.coll. [s.n.], Syria K001065233
    Otruba, J. [2], Czech Republic K000838002
    Otruba, J. [I], Czech Republic K000838003
    Degen, A. de [54], Hungary K001064301
    Tanaka, H. [s.n.], Japan K001065265
    Collett, R. [s.n.], Norway K001064254
    Andrews, W. [454], Kenya K001065309
    Pin, L. [s.n.], Switzerland K001064291
    Pin, L. [s.n.], Switzerland K001064296
    Pin, L. [s.n.], France K001064313
    Bornet, E. [s.n.], France K001064314
    Bredemann [39], Germany K001064283
    Favrat [s.n.], Switzerland K001064297
    Alston, A. [950], Sri Lanka K001065290
    Alston, A. [950], Sri Lanka K001065291
    Tang, T. [1973], China K001065268
    Trotter, E.N. [63 G], Pakistan K001065281
    Bourke, J.A. [s.n.], Queensland K001065293
    Blakeloda, R.A. [72], Norway K001064255
    Marklund, E. [s.n.], Sweden K001064258
    Hilleström, A. [s.n.], Sweden K001064261
    Hilleström, A. [s.n.], Sweden K001064266
    Samuelsson, V. [119], Sweden K001064263
    Rydén, C. [s.n.], Sweden K001064264
    Idman, R. [1036], Finland K001064268
    Idmar, R. [1036], Finland K001064269
    Lindfors, A. [1037], Finland K001064270
    Twardowska, M. [891], Belarus K001064274
    Eberneder [963], Germany K001064284
    Banks, W.L. [s.n.], Austria K001064286
    Rechinger [s.n.], Austria K001064290
    Borza [724], Romania K001064298
    Chmelewsky, W. [398], Poland K001064299
    Jávorko, S. [s.n.], Hungary K001064300
    Wilizek [745], Belgium K001064302
    Mosseuary, R. [s.n.], Belgium K001064303
    Klovsf, A.K. [s.n.], Netherlands K001064304
    Klovsf, A.H. [s.n.], Netherlands K001064305
    Sedoux [s.n.], Belgium K001064306
    Hichel, E. [s.n.], Belgium K001064308
    Pin. C. [s.n.], France K001064317
    Proal, M. [s.n.], France K001064320
    Bordiere [s.n.], France K001064321
    Boggiani, M.O. [s.n.], Italy K001064325
    Barneg, R.W. [1155], Kenya K001065317
    Bor, N. [s.n.], India K001065289
    Tanino, K. [s.n.], Japan K001065257
    Bijout, F. [1809], Mauritius K001065329
    Burtt-Davey, J. [5550], South Africa K001065336
    Transhakr [10384E], Iran K001065213
    Pahet [10097E], Iran K001065218
    Babakhanloo-Amin [10928], Iran K001065219
    Köle, M. [2798], Afghanistan K001065221
    Bisand, H. [11], Turkey K001065222
    Moroz, B.F. [s.n.], Russian Federation K001065236
    Timokhina, S. [727], Russian Federation K001065242
    Nepsh, T. [s.n.], Russian Federation K001065243
    Gorovoy [s.n.], Russian Federation K001065244
    Pobedimova, E. [269], Russian Federation K001065245
    Neuli, G.N. [s.n.], Russian Federation K001065246
    Shennikov, A.P. [s.n.], Russian Federation K001065247
    Dionède [s.n.], France K001064322
    Dionède [s.n.], France K001065412
    Eberlen, F. [192], Germany K001064281
    Durahue [s.n.], France K001064318
    Capt. Garden [s.n.], Iran K001065217
    Maacty [s.n.], Japan K001065256
    Anastray, C. [EA 16294], Kenya K001065316
    Dieterten, A. [1183] K001065333
    Helsingör [s.n.], Sweden K001064256
    Ohrstedt, G. [s.n.], Sweden K001064260
    Fröding, H.A. [s.n.], Sweden K001064267
    Jansen, D. [s.n.], Germany K001064278
    Jehel [s.n.], Germany K001064282
    Granng [s.n.], Austria K001064287
    Hollen [649], Portugal K001064328
    Oliau, G. [A/123], Mauritius K001065330
    Gressit, J.L. [153], Taiwan K001065277
    Stormer [7B], Norway K001064253
    Bacher, G.O.van [21702], Jawa K001065292
    Zeyher [s.n.], South Africa Phalaris caesia K000367492
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa Phalaris caesia K000367490
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa Phalaris caesia K000367491
    Wood, J. M. [4097], South Africa Phalaris caesia K000367493

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 55 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Werier, D. (2017). Catalogue of the Vascular plants of New York state Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 27: 1-542. New York Botanical Garden.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Grubov, V.I. (2008). Key to the vascular plants of Mongolia (with an atlas) 2: 1-503. Academy of Sciences, Mongolian People's Republic, Ulaan Bator.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    • Kew Medicinal Plant Names Services (MPNS) https://www.kew.org/science/data-and-resources/tools-and-services/medicinal-plant-names-services in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.or
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Sumadijaya, A. (2011). An account of the non-bambusoid alien grasses (Poaceae) in Java, one century after first records by Backer Folia Malaysiana 12: 47-68.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
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    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
    ColPlantA database
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0