1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Pharus P.Browne
      1. Pharus lappulaceus Aubl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; 50-100 cm long; 3 mm diam. Culm-internodes solid. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; 1-1.5 mm long. Leaf-blade base with a false petiole. Leaf-blades inverted; elliptic; 11-22 cm long; 35-45 mm wide. Leaf-blade venation slanting obliquely from midrib; with distinct cross veins. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; 11-22 cm long; contracted about primary branches. Primary panicle branches spreading; simple. Panicle axis bearing deciduous branches. Panicle branches stiff; pubescent; with hooked hairs. Sexes mixed. Spikelets appressed; in pairs, or in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1-2 in the cluster. Male spikelets pedicelled; 1 in a cluster. Pedicels filiform.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; straight; subterete; 8-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Male spikelets similar to female but less developed; 1 flowered; separately deciduous; lanceolate; 2.5-2.7 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma 3 -veined.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; straight; subterete; 8-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 4.2-5.8 mm long; 0.8-0.9 length of upper glume; scarious; dark brown; without keels; 7 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 5-6.5 mm long; 0.5-0.66 length of adjacent fertile lemma; scarious; dark brown; without keels; 7 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma elliptic; subterete; 8-12 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 7 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma surface pubescent; hairy all along; with hooked hairs. Lemma margins involute; interlocking with palea keels. Lemma apex acute; with a conical beak; with this appendage 1-1.5 mm long. Palea linear; 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 6; 0.9-1.1 mm long. Stigmas 3; pubescent.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong.
    Male
    Male spikelets similar to female but less developed; 1 flowered; separately deciduous; lanceolate; 2.5-2.7 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma 3 -veined.
    Distribution
    North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Phareae. =Pharus glaber. Pohl.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 400 - 1900 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Pharus lappulaceus Aubl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 6, 2013 Clayton, W.D. [4618], Brazil K000947354
    Aug 6, 2013 Clayton, W.D. [4579], Brazil K000947355
    Aug 6, 2013 Hatschbach [26380], Brazil K000947347
    Aug 6, 2013 Burchell [1814], Brazil K000947367
    Aug 6, 2013 Lindeman, J.C. [5047], Brazil K000947365
    Aug 6, 2013 Lindeman, J.C. [4457], Brazil K000947366
    Aug 6, 2013 Krapovickas, A. [22915], Brazil K000947344
    Aug 6, 2013 Irwin, H.S. [13063], Brazil K000947352
    Aug 6, 2013 Castellanos, A. [24703], Brazil K000947351
    Aug 6, 2013 Smith, L.B. [1370], Brazil K000947349
    Aug 6, 2013 Smith, L.B. [14134], Brazil K000947353
    Aug 6, 2013 Riedel [166], Brazil K000947348
    Aug 6, 2013 Dusén, P. [7753], Brazil K000947364
    Aug 6, 2013 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000947371
    Aug 6, 2013 Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000947373
    Aug 6, 2013 Boog [s.n.], Brazil K000947374
    Aug 6, 2013 Rambo, B. [46099], Brazil K000947350
    Aug 6, 2013 s.coll. [38], Brazil K000947372
    Aug 6, 2013 Hatschbach, G.G. [15724], Brazil K000947357
    Aug 6, 2013 Hatschbach, G.G. [14215], Brazil K000947358
    Aug 6, 2013 Hatschbach, G.G. [16211], Brazil K000947359
    Aug 6, 2013 Hatschbach, G.G. [19041], Brazil K000947360
    Aug 6, 2013 Hatschbach, G.G. [16367], Brazil K000947361
    Aug 6, 2013 Hatschbach, G.G. [15612], Brazil K000947362
    Aug 6, 2013 Dono, E. [s.n.], Peru K000947342
    Aug 6, 2013 Belvedere [9505], Brazil K000947356
    Aug 1, 2013 Calderon, C.E. [2020], Brazil K000947376
    Aug 1, 2013 Calderon, C.E. [2016], Brazil K000947377
    Aug 1, 2013 Carauta, J.P.P. [957], Brazil K000947375
    Aug 1, 2013 Glaziou [4398], Brazil K000947368
    Aug 1, 2013 Glaziou [17926], Brazil K000947370
    Aug 1, 2013 s.coll. [s.n.] K000947369
    Jan 1, 2004 Kallunki, J.A. [641], Brazil K000947346
    Jan 1, 2001 Groppo, M. Jr. [586], Brazil K000947345
    Soderstrom, T.R. [1892], Brazil K000947343
    Dusén, P. [9902], Brazil K000947363
    Sellow [1840], Brazil K000433408
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000433409
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [17926], Brazil K000947378

    First published in Hist. Pl. Guiane: 859 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0