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  1. Family: Zygophyllaceae R.Br.
    1. Zygophyllum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Europe, Asia-Tropical, Africa, Southern America, Northern America and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Zygophyllaceae, M. Nabil El Hadidi (Faculty of Science, Cairo University). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Shrubs or shrublets, rarely annual herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves paired at each node, equal in size, paripinnate or rarely with 1 leaflet or simple; stipules membranous or fleshy
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary or in cymose clusters at each node, 4-5-merous, regular
    Corolla
    Petals white, yellow or orange, clawed
    Stamens
    Stamens 8-10 in 2 whorls; filaments with entire, bifid or bipartite basal scale
    Pistil
    Ovary glabrous or covered with short hairs, 5-lobed, 5-locular; ovules few-numerous in each locule; style and stigma simple
    Fruits
    Fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule
    Seeds
    Seed with endosperm.
    [FZ]

    Zygophyllaceae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Habit
    Small shrubs or shrublets, rarely perennial or annual herbs, often armed.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, (1) 2-foliolate, succulent, often caducous; leaflets very variable in size and shape, subcircular, spathulate, elliptic, linear, lanceolate or lanceolate-elliptic.
    Stipules
    Stipules present, often spiny.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary or sometimes 2-nate, terminal.
    Calyx
    Sepals 4–5, imbricate, persistent or deciduous, sometimes connate at the base, somewhat fleshy.
    Corolla
    Petals 4–5, sometimes unguiculate, usually longer than the sepals, imbricate, whitish or yellow and often with a red spot at the base, spreading.
    Disc
    Disk cup-shaped, fleshy, 8–10-angled.
    Stamens
    Stamens 8–10, inserted at the base of the disk; filaments subulate, provided with a usually fimbriate or pectinate, bifid or bipartite appendage at the base; anthers oblong or oblong-ovate.
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile on the disk, 4–5-locular, with 2 or more pendulous ovules in each loculus; style simple, terete, with a small stigma.
    Fruits
    Fruit a capsule or samara, 4–5-locular, 4–5-angled or winged, usually with several seeds.
    Seeds
    Seeds crustaceous, with scanty endosperm.
    [FTEA]

    Zygophyllaceae, M. Nabil El Hadidi (Faculty of Science, Cairo University). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Annual herbs, or mostly biennial or perennial shrubs or undershrubs, glabrous or covered with an indumentum which is characteristic for each species; branches mostly erect, sometimes angular or grooved, swollen at the nodes
    Leaves
    Leaves paired at each node, equal in size, mostly 3-foliolate becoming 1-foliolate through reduction with a characteristic joint between petiole and blade, rarely sessile; stipules usually develop into spines, rarely absent
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary at each node, up to 20 mm. across, 5-merous, regular
    Stamens
    Stamens 10 in 2 whorls; filaments without a basal scale
    Fruits
    Fruit an obconical capsule; peduncle longer or shorter than the capsule; calyx persistent or deciduous at maturity of the capsule
    Seeds
    Seeds with endosperm; testa brown, punctate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Altay, Angola, Arizona, Baleares, Botswana, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Greece, Gulf States, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Peru, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Colorado, France, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, New York, Sardegna, Washington

    Accepted Species

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Zygophyllum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Collenette, I.S. [6378], Saudi Arabia 52270.000
    Wood, J.R.I. [2676], Yemen 59841.000
    Sep 1, 1983 Gillett, J.B. [23803], Somalia Fagonia K000417162

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 385 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • —F.T.A. 1: 285.

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 182 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 385 (1753)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Hadidi in Webbia 33: 48-72 (1978)
    • van Huyssteen, Morphologisch-systematische Studien über die Gattung Zygophyllum mit besonderer en Berücksichtigung der afrikanischen Arten, Dissert. Math.-Naturwiss. Fak. Univ. Berlin (1937)
    • Engler in E. & P. Pf., ed. 2, 19a: 160-166 (1931)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 182 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 385 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0