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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Polytoca R.Br.
      1. Polytoca macrophylla Benth.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Maluku to Papuasia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; robust; 200-300 cm long; with prop roots. Culm-nodes bearded. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 0.5 mm long. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 30-90 cm long; 20-80 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole. Racemes 1; single; 5-10 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened; glabrous on surface, or pubescent on surface. Rhachis internodes oblong; 5-7 mm long; bearing a sterile companion laterally. Rhachis internode tip transverse; crateriform. Sexes segregated; on bisexual branches; with male above. Spikelets embracing internode; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Male spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in a cluster. Pedicels fused to internode; united wholly.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; laterally compressed; 9-12 mm long; as long as fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; without keels.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 9-12 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; indurate; pallid; 2-keeled; keeled above; keeled laterally; winged on keel; winged above. Lower glume surface asperulous; not waisted. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; cartilaginous. Upper glume apex cuspidate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; hyaline; cuspidate. Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma lanceolate; hyaline; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma apex acute. Palea 1 length of lemma; hyaline.
    Spikelets
    Male spikelets distinct from female; with pedicels fused to rhachis; 2 flowered; lanceolate; 9-12 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; laterally compressed; 9-12 mm long; as long as fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; without keels. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 9-12 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; attached transversely.
    Male
    Male spikelets distinct from female; with pedicels fused to rhachis; 2 flowered; lanceolate; 9-12 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2.
    Distribution
    Asia-tropical: Malesia and Papuasia. Pacific: north-central.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. WDC.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bismarck Archipelago, Maluku, New Guinea, Solomon Is.

    Extinct in:

    Jawa

    Introduced into:

    Fiji, Hawaii, Jawa

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Polytoca macrophylla Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 1998 MacGillivray, J. [460], Papua New Guinea Chionachne macrophylla K000290030 holotype
    Jun 1, 1998 MacGillivray, J. [460], Papua New Guinea Chionachne macrophylla K000290086 isotype

    Bibliography

    First published in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 52 (1881)

    Not accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Chionachne macrophylla.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Sumadijaya, A. (2011). An account of the non-bambusoid alien grasses (Poaceae) in Java, one century after first records by Backer Folia Malaysiana 12: 47-68.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0