1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Polytoca R.Br.
      1. Polytoca wallichiana (Nees ex Steud.) Benth.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Himalaya to Indo-China.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms 30-120 cm long; with prop roots. Leaf-sheaths hispid; with tubercle-based hairs. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 20-90 cm long; 25-35 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious; with male terminal and mixed axillary inflorescences. Synflorescence compound; fasciculate; 6-10 cm long; dense. Inflorescence composed of racemes; axillary; subtended by a spatheole; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Spatheole lanceolate; herbaceous. Racemes 1-9 (1 of them female); single, or digitate; 3-8 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 3-7 fertile spikelets on each (and 0-10 male spikelets). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened; pubescent on surface; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes clavate; 5-6 mm long; bearing a sterile companion laterally. Rhachis internode tip crateriform. Sexes segregated; on unisexual branches, or bisexual branches; with male above, or below. Spikelets embracing internode; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Male spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in a cluster. Pedicels fused to internode; united wholly. Male inflorescence of subdigitate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; with free pedicels; 2 flowered; ovate; 6 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2; awned (5-15mm). Male spikelet lemma 3 -veined.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes; lanceolate; 10-20 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 6-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes; lanceolate; 10-20 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 6-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; indurate; much thinner above; pallid; 2-keeled; keeled above; winged on keel; winged broadly; winged above. Lower glume surface convex; laterally waisted; pubescent; hairy below. Lower glume apex entire, or erose; emarginate, or obtuse. Upper glume oblong; 0.75 length of spikelet; coriaceous; without keels; 7 -veined. Upper glume apex caudate.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma oblong; 4 mm long; cartilaginous; without keel; 9 -veined. Lemma apex cuspidate. Palea oblong; 0.75 length of lemma; hyaline; 1 -veined; without keels. Palea apex cuspidate.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; square; flattened; concavo-convex; 2.5 mm long. Hilum punctiform.
    Male
    Male inflorescence of subdigitate racemes. Male spikelets distinct from female; with free pedicels; 2 flowered; ovate; 6 mm long. Male spikelet glumes 2; awned (5-15mm). Male spikelet lemma 3 -veined.
    Distribution
    Asia-tropical: India and Indo-China.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. Bor.
    Diagnostic
    Male racemes flexuous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, East Himalaya, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., Thailand, Vietnam

    Polytoca wallichiana (Nees ex Steud.) Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 24, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [19696], Thailand K000620690
    Mar 24, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [2157], Thailand K000648182
    Mar 24, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [2157], Thailand K000648181
    Larsen, K. [2747], Thailand K000648048
    Larsen, K. [9524], Thailand K000648049
    Larsen, K. [8559], Thailand K000648050
    Wallich, N. [8629 A], Myanmar K000246055 isotype
    Wallich, N. [8629 B], Myanmar K000246056 isotype
    Jan 21, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [13164], Thailand Cyathorhachis wallichiana K000620693
    Jan 21, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [13164], Thailand Cyathorhachis wallichiana K000620694
    Jan 21, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [13164], Thailand Cyathorhachis wallichiana K000620695
    Jan 18, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [19696], Thailand Cyathorhachis wallichiana K000620691
    Jan 18, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [19696], Thailand Cyathorhachis wallichiana K000620692
    Jan 18, 2008 Kerr, A.F.G. [19696], Thailand Cyathorhachis wallichiana K000648183

    First published in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 19: 52 (1881)

    Accepted by

    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0