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This species is accepted, and its native range is Sicilia, Africa, Asia to N. & NE. Australia.

[FZ]

Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

Morphology General Habit
Rhizomatous perennial.
Morphology Culms
Culms 200–400 cm high or more.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf laminas 5–15(40) mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle 25–60 cm long, the axis hirsute; racemes 3–15 cm long, usually much longer than supporting branches, the internodes and pedicels hirsute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 3.5–7 mm long, the callus barbate with silky white hairs 2–3 times as long as the spikelet.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes subcoriaceous in the lower third, glabrous on the back, ciliate on the margins above.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Superior lemma subulate and up to 3 mm long, or suppressed.
Superior
Superior lemma subulate and up to 3 mm long, or suppressed.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Tall rhizomatous perennial; culms 2–4 m. high or more.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades 50–90 cm. long, 5–15(–40) mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle 25–60 cm. long, the axis hirsute; racemes 3–15 cm. long, usually much longer than the supporting branches, the internodes and pedicels hirsute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets 3.5–7 mm. long, the callus bearded with silky white hairs 2–3 times as long as the spikelet; glumes subcoriaceous in the lower third, glabrous on the back, ciliate on the margins above; upper lemma subulate and up to 3 mm. long, or suppressed.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms erect; robust; 200-400 cm long. Culm-internodes solid. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blade base simple, or tapering to the midrib. Leaf-blades 50-200 cm long; 3-30 mm wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Peduncle hirsute above. Panicle open; ovate; dense; 20-50 cm long. Panicle axis pilose, or hirsute. Racemes 3-15 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subterete; pilose on surface. Rhachis internodes filiform. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 2 in the cluster; subequal. Pedicels filiform; ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 3.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base, or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus bearded; base truncate. Spikelet callus hairs white; 2-3 length of spikelet.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 3.5-7 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base, or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus bearded; base truncate. Spikelet callus hairs white; 2-3 length of spikelet.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes similar; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; much thinner above; 2-keeled. Lower glume surface flat. Lower glume margins ciliate. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume margins ciliate. Upper glume apex acute; mucronate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 0.5 length of spikelet; hyaline; 0 -veined; without midvein; without lateral veins; acute. Fertile lemma linear; 1-2 mm long; hyaline; 0 -veined. Palea absent or minute.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2; cuneate; ciliate. Anthers 3.
Distribution
Europe: southeastern. Africa: north, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. South America: Mesoamericana.
Reference
Andropogoneae. Whalen 2003.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Morocco, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sinai, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yemen

Introduced into:

Caroline Is., Christmas I., Costa Rica, Cuba, Fiji, Florida, Hawaii, Italy, Kriti, Madagascar, Marianas, Mauritius, New Caledonia, Panamá, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Samoa, Sardegna, Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Vanuatu

Saccharum spontaneum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jul 1, 2010 Merrill, E.D. [543], Philippines K000943365 neotype
Jul 27, 2000 Meng, M. [231], Cambodia K000731578
Jan 1, 1990 Gilbert, M.G. [9073], Ethiopia K000731586
Jul 1, 1977 Rice, C. [59], Nepal K000731573
Jul 1, 1977 Rice, C. [2], Nepal K000731572
Jan 1, 1972 Grey-Wilson, C. [1038], Afghanistan K000731569
Jan 1, 1968 Furse, P. [9036], Iran K000731571
Jan 1, 1968 Furse, P. [7774], Afghanistan K000731567
Jan 1, 1968 Furse, P. [8234], Afghanistan K000731568
Jan 1, 1968 Rechinger, K.H. [34736], Afghanistan K000731570
Feb 1, 1964 Inne, R.R. [3073], Ghana K000731581
Apr 1, 1962 Ankrah, J.O. [1604], Ghana K000731583
Jan 1, 1957 s.coll. [s.n.], India K000943384
Roxburgh, W. [s.n.], India K000245555 isotype
Friis, I. [9218], Ethiopia K000731585
Soderstrom, T.R. [2097], Nepal K000731574
Junghuhn, F.W. [s.n.], Indonesia K000943367
Innes, R.R. [30274], Ghana K000731582
Collenette, J.S. [3645], Saudi Arabia K000731565
Cuming, H. [634], Philippines K000943366 syntype
Vesey-Fitzgerald, D. [1524], Saudi Arabia K000731566
Ycholz [188], Burkina Faso K000731584

First published in Mant. Pl. 2: 183 (1771)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Damanakis, M. & Scholz, H. (1990). Phytogeographical notes on the Poaceae of Greece Willdenowia 19: 413-423.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Middleton, D.J. & al. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 7: 1-525. Singapore Botanic Gardens.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Artschwager, U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 811 (1942).
  • Mant. Alt. 183 (1771)
  • Panje in Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 3: 1013 (1933)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2019). doi: 10.3897/italianbotanist.8.48621 epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (2014- continuously updated). Atlas of Living Australia http://www.ala.org.au/.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Damanakis, M. & Scholz, H. (1990). Phytogeographical notes on the Poaceae of Greece Willdenowia 19: 413-423.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Datta, B.K., Saha, R. Roy, M. & Majumder, K. (2008). Grasses of West Tripura district, Tripura, India Pleione 2: 98-105.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fedtschenko, B.A. & al. (1932). Flora Turkmenii 1: 1-340. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Hall, D.W. (2019). Grasses of Florida: 1-353. University press of Florida.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
  • Merkodovich, N.A. (ed.) (1941). Flora Uzbekistana 1: 1-566. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pavlov, N.V. (ed.) (1956). Flora Kazakhstana 1: 1-354. Alma-Ata, Izd-vo Akademii nauk Kazakhskoi SSR.
  • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Reddy, G.V.P. (2011). Survey of invasive plants on Guam and identification of the 20 most widespread Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 41: 263-274.
  • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Roshevitz, R.J. & al. (eds.) (1950). Flora Kirgizskoi SSR 2: 1-315. Frunze : Izd-vo KirgizFAN SSSR.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Artschwager, U.S. Dept. Agric. Tech. Bull. 811 (1942).
  • L., Mant. Pl. Alt.: 183 (1771).
  • Panje in Ind. Journ. Agric. Sci. 3: 1013 (1933).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/