1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Sclerodactylon Stapf
      1. Sclerodactylon macrostachyum (Benth.) A.Camus

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Tanzania to NE. Mozambique, W. Indian Ocean, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Densely caespitose glaucous perennial, sometimes with creeping stolons; culms up to 50 cm tall, erect and straight, simple or rarely fasciculately branched from the lower nodes, the leaves all basal; leaf laminas 20–40 cm × up to 2.5 mm, subulate, cylindrical or ± compressed and elliptic in section, glabrous, pungent.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 2–3, 5–10 cm long, rigid and straight.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 7–15 mm long, 7–20-flowered, lanceolate or oblong to elliptic or ovate-elliptic; glumes obliquely lanceolate in profile, acute or subacute, the inferior 2–3 mm long, the superior 3–4 mm long; lemmas 4.5–5 mm long, obliquely ovate in profile, the lateral nerves obsolete below but prominent above.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Stolons present. Culms erect; 40-60 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades terete; 10-30 cm long; 2-3 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade apex acuminate; pungent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 2(-3); paired; unilateral; 7-12 cm long. Rhachis angular; terminating in a sterile spikelet. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded; regular; 2 -rowed. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Sterile
    Apical sterile spikelets rudimentary.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 5-40 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 5-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret, or below groups of fertile florets. Apical sterile spikelets rudimentary.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 5-40 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets oblong, or ovate; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; 5-20 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret, or below groups of fertile florets.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet; similar to fertile lemma in texture. Lower glume ovate; 0.75 length of upper glume; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein scabrous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein scabrous. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute; muticous, or mucronate. Upper glume awn subapical.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 2.5-3 mm long; coriaceous; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma apex acute. Palea keels winged; conspicuously winged; scaberulous. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; ellipsoid; laterally compressed; trigonous. Embryo 0.3 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Africa: east tropical, southern tropical, and western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. WDC.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Comoros, Madagascar, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Nicobar Is., Seychelles, Tanzania

    Sclerodactylon macrostachyum (Benth.) A.Camus appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 79: 38 (1932)

    Accepted by

    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Renvoize, S.A. (1980). The Flora of Aldabra and neighbouring islands: 1-358. Crown, London.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Renvoize, S.A. (1980). The Flora of Aldabra and neighbouring islands: 1-358. Crown, London.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0