1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Sorghum Moench
      1. Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Indian Subcontinent.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Annual, rarely short-lived perennial; culms 30–400 cm high, robust, branched; nodes mostly glabrous, sometimes pubescent; leaf sheaths glabrous; ligule a membrane, edged with a fringe of fine hairs and hairy on the back; leaf laminas variable, often large, 5–75 cm × 5–7 mm, broadly lanceolate, flat, glabrous on both surfaces, with a prominent whitish midrib.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 10–60 cm long, broadly spreading; main axis angular, glabrous; primary branches divided, pubescent at the nodes; racemes 2–7-jointed; rhachis internodes and pedicels pilose.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet (4)7(9) mm long, lanceolate to narrowly ovate; glumes coriaceous; inferior glume dorsally compressed, narrowly ovate, 2-keeled on the margins, the keels winged, the wings not or scarcely broadened above and ending in minute teeth well below the glume apex, the latter not equally 3-toothed, white-pubescent, sometimes tomentose or fulvously pubescent, slightly depressed longitudinally on the back; superior glume glabrescent or with sparse hairs on the back; inferior floret empty, its lemma c. 5.5 mm long, lanceolate, ciliate on the margins; superior floret bisexual, its lemma c. 3 mm long, deeply lobed, ciliate on the lobes and margins, awned; awn up to 20 mm long, glabrous; palea c. 2 mm long. Pedicelled spikelets neuter, c. 6.5 mm long, linear to lanceolate; glumes chartaceous; inferior glume glabrous; superior glume slightly shorter than the inferior, glabrous; inferior lemma glabrous, with a truncate apex.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet (4)7(9) mm long, lanceolate to narrowly ovate; glumes coriaceous; inferior glume dorsally compressed, narrowly ovate, 2-keeled on the margins, the keels winged, the wings not or scarcely broadened above and ending in minute teeth well below the glume apex, the latter not equally 3-toothed, white-pubescent, sometimes tomentose or fulvously pubescent, slightly depressed longitudinally on the back; superior glume glabrescent or with sparse hairs on the back; inferior floret empty, its lemma c. 5.5 mm long, lanceolate, ciliate on the margins; superior floret bisexual, its lemma c. 3 mm long, deeply lobed, ciliate on the lobes and margins, awned; awn up to 20 mm long, glabrous; palea c. 2 mm long.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelets neuter, c. 6.5 mm long, linear to lanceolate; glumes chartaceous; inferior glume glabrous; superior glume slightly shorter than the inferior, glabrous; inferior lemma glabrous, with a truncate apex.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual or perennial 2–3·5 m. high.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual, or short-lived perennial without rhizomes; culms 0.3–4 m. high, often robust, the nodes glabrous or pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades variable, often large, 5–75 cm. long, 5–70 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle linear to broadly spreading, 10–60 cm. long; primary branches compound, ultimately bearing racemes of 2–7 spikelet pairs.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 4–9 mm. long, glabrescent to white pubescent, sometimes tomentose or fulvously pubescent, awnless or more often with an awn 5–30 mm. long. Pedicelled spikelet linear to lanceolate, ♂ or barren, smaller than the sessile.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 4–9 mm. long, glabrescent to white pubescent, sometimes tomentose or fulvously pubescent, awnless or more often with an awn 5–30 mm. long.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet linear to lanceolate, ♂ or barren, smaller than the sessile.
    Figures
    Fig. 168.
    Habitat
    Swampy soils, streamsides and black clays; also in disturbed places and old farmland; 0–1800(–2900) m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 throughout Africa, extending eastwards to Australiaintroduced to tropical America
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual, or perennial. Rhizomes absent. Basal innovations extravaginal. Culms erect; 30-400 cm long; 2-15 mm diam.; without nodal roots, or with prop roots. Culm-internodes thin-walled. Culm-nodes glabrous, or pubescent. Leaves cauline. Leaf-sheaths narrower than blade at the collar; without keel; smooth; glabrous on surface. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; 2-3 mm long; glabrous on abaxial surface; entire; truncate. Collar glabrous. Leaf-blades 5-75 cm long; 5-70 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth. Leaf-blade margins scabrous; glabrous. Leaf-blade apex acute.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; linear, or lanceolate, or ovate; 10-60 cm long. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes; moderately divided. Panicle branches flexuous; scaberulous; pubescent in axils. Racemes 0.8-2 cm long; bearing 2-7 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs 0.5-1.5 mm long. Rhachis internodes filiform; 2-5 mm long. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; flattened; 0.5 length of fertile spikelet; ciliate.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; comprising 2 subequal glumes without lemmas, or male; linear to lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 3-8 mm long; shorter than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; smooth; glabrous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate to ovate; dorsally compressed; acute; 4-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base obtuse.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; comprising 2 subequal glumes without lemmas, or male; linear to lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 3-8 mm long; shorter than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; smooth; glabrous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate to ovate; dorsally compressed; acute; 4-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keels; keel-less except near apex. Lower glume surface pubescent. Lower glume hairs white, or yellow. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keels. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 0.8 length of spikelet; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliate on margins; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; dorsally compressed; 1-3 mm long; hyaline; 1 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 0-30 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; oblong; fleshy; ciliate; hairy across the apex. Anthers 3; 2 mm long. Stigmas 2; laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; dorsally compressed; 2 mm long. Embryo 0.6 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform. Endosperm farinose. Disseminule comprising a rhachis internode.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-tropical: India and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: southwest USA. South America: Caribbean, western South America, and Brazil.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. WDC.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Loosely tufted annual, or sometimes perennial, 1–5 m. high.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual, up to 3 m. high.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Annual or short-lived perennial up to 2·4 m. high.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Egypt

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, California, Caroline Is., Colombia, Cook Is., Ecuador, Fiji, Florida, Hawaii, Jamaica, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Niue, Norfolk Is., Peru, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Samoa, Society Is., Solomon Is., Taiwan, Tonga, Venezuela

    Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv.) Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5253], Cameroon K000199944
    Jan 1, 2002 Friis, I. [10218], Ethiopia K000731324
    May 1, 1998 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1397], Brazil K001068779
    May 1, 1998 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1397], Brazil K001068780
    Jan 1, 1993 Carvalho [2171], Equatorial Guinea K000731315
    Jan 1, 1993 Fernández-Casas [11610], Equatorial Guinea K000731314
    Apr 7, 1992 Hansen, J. [6309], Somalia K000731331
    Sep 1, 1975 Wood, G.H.S. [989], Uganda K000731337
    Sep 1, 1975 Bogdan, A. [AB3101], Kenya K000731343
    May 1, 1970 Schotz [146], Burkina Faso K000731304
    Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [4750], Brazil K001068761
    Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [4891], Brazil K001068776
    Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [4891], Brazil K001068777
    Jan 1, 1964 Eiten, G. [4891], Brazil K001068778
    Jan 1, 1963 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [6563], Cameroon K000731309
    Jul 25, 1951 Gardner, G. [144], Brazil K001068768
    Jul 25, 1951 Riedel [1231], Brazil K001068764
    Jul 25, 1951 Burchell, W.J. [1632], Brazil K001068767
    Jul 25, 1951 MacGillivray, J. [212], Brazil K001068763
    Jul 25, 1951 Glaziou, A.F.M. [3150], Brazil K001068762
    Jul 25, 1951 Glaziou, A.F.M. [6961], Brazil K001068769
    Jul 25, 1951 Glaziou, A.F.M. [1633], Brazil K001068771
    Jul 25, 1951 Saint-Hilaire, A.F.C.P. [A 524], Brazil K001068766
    Jul 25, 1951 Meen, J. [3745], Brazil K001068765
    May 23, 1951 Deighton, F.C. [3473], Sierra Leone K000731297
    Nov 1, 1948 Baldwin, J.T. Jr. [11032], Liberia K000731302
    Greenway, P.J. [1956], Tanzania K000280821 holotype
    Gillett, J.B. [23566], Somalia K000731330
    Dalziel, J.M. [293], Nigeria K000280818 syntype
    Germain [5921], Congo K000731311
    Gilbert, M.G. [2455], Ethiopia K000731326
    Gilbert, M.G. [177], Ethiopia K000731327
    Thomas, A.S. [714], Uganda K000280828 holotype
    Thomas, A.S. [714], Uganda K000280827 holotype
    Thomas, A.S. [714], Uganda K000280826 holotype
    Clayton, W.D. [4172], Brazil K001068757
    Clayton, W.D. [4172], Brazil K001068758
    Clayton, W.D. [4150], Brazil K001068759
    Brummitt, R.K. [8797], Malawi K000731353
    Brummitt, R.K. [11519], Malawi K000731354
    Wickens, G.E. [3545], Nigeria K000731292
    Raynal, J. [13513], Benin K000731295
    Raynal, J. [12553], Cameroon K000731308
    Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [7444], Cameroon K000731313
    Schweinfurth, G. [1521], Sudan K000280787 Unknown type material
    Friis, I. [11321], Ethiopia K000731323
    Friis, I. [9575], Ethiopia K000731325
    Friis, I. [7180], Ethiopia K000731328
    Thulin, M. [6984], Somalia K000731329
    Thomas [3884], Uganda K000280829 holotype
    Eiten, G. [10414], Brazil K001068760
    Castellanos, A. [5764], Brazil K001068770
    Kotschy [390], Sudan K000280789
    Kotschy [132], Ethiopia K000280790 holotype
    Wight, R. [3246], Tamil Nadu K000245616 holotype
    Drège, South Africa K000280794 syntype
    Drège, South Africa K000280793 syntype
    Figari, Ethiopia K000280788 holotype
    McKinnon, A.S. [S274], Somalia K000280784 Unknown type material
    McKinnon, A.S. [S274], Somalia K000280786 Unknown type material
    McKinnon, A.S. [S274], Somalia K000280785 holotype
    Storey, H.H. [2], Tanzania K000280823 holotype
    Storey, H.H. [2], Tanzania K000280822 holotype
    Eichinger, A. [5885], Tanzania K000280825 isotype
    Eichinger, A. [5885], Tanzania K000280824 holotype
    Drummond, J.R [21091], Punjab K000245615 holotype
    Laegaard, S. [16260], Zimbabwe K000731364
    L [7418], Kenya K000731346
    Innes, R.R. [s.n.], Ghana K000731306
    Innes, R.R. [s.n.], Ghana K000731307
    Innes, R.R. [RRI665], Somalia K000731333
    Broun, A.F. [1473], Sudan K000280791 syntype
    Broun, A.F. [1473], Sudan K000280792 syntype
    van Meer, P.P.C. [431], Liberia K000731301
    White, R.J. [35], Mozambique K000731352
    Parker, C. [2013], Burkina Faso K000731299
    s.coll [20], Kenya K000731344
    s.coll. [s.n.], Guinea K000280774
    Kazmi, S.M.A. [5189], Somalia K000731332
    Amico, A. [s.n.], Mozambique K000731350
    Aké Assi [12205], Côte d'Ivoire K000731300
    Jun 20, 1951 Shantz, H.L. [602], Congo Sorghum macrochaetum K000731310
    Wickens, G.E. [1941], Sudan Sorghum macrochaetum K000731318
    Hall, J.B. [770], Ghana Sorghum vogelianum K000731305
    Vogel [11], Nigeria Sorghum vogelianum K000280820 holotype
    Vogel [11], Nigeria Sorghum vogelianum K000280819 holotype
    s.coll [18770], Cameroon Sorghum vogelianum K000731296
    Jan 1, 1990 Rwaburindore, P.K. [3022], Uganda Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731335
    Jan 1, 1990 Rwaburindore, P.K. [2520], Uganda Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731340
    Greenway, P.J. [12095], Tanzania Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731348
    Greenway, P.J. [10321], Tanzania Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731349
    Angus, A. [2950], Zambia Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731360
    Glover [2964], Kenya Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731342
    Mitchell, B.L. [19906], Zambia Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731357
    Mitchell, B.L. [31564], Zambia Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731359
    Germain, R. [6559], Burundi Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731316
    Strey [8657], South Africa Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731374
    Mhoro, B. [1198], Tanzania Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731347
    Wild, H. [7023], Namibia Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731369
    Gonde, P. [PG124/75], Zimbabwe Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731365
    Smith, P.A. [1917], Botswana Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731367
    Ellis, R.P. [2733], Botswana Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731366
    Zambatis, N. [191], South Africa Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731372
    Zambatis, N. [129], South Africa Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731373
    Drummond, R.B. [5429], Zambia Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731358
    Moss, H. [2101], Namibia Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731370
    s.coll [1212], Uganda Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731338
    s.coll [46-75], Zambia Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731361
    s.coll [1128], Botswana Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731368
    Hirst, W. [s.n.], Uganda Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731334
    Langdale [1426], Uganda Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731339
    Danny [NYM128], Tanzania Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731345
    Beattie, I.H. [938], Zimbabwe Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731356
    Cakes, A.J. [262], South Africa Sorghum verticilliflorum K000731375
    Jan 1, 1967 De Wilde, C.S.W. [5230], Chad Sorghum aethiopicum K000731312
    Adam, J.G. [21824], Mauritania Sorghum lanceolatum K000731293

    First published in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 114 (1917)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
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    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Snowden Snowden in J. Linn. Soc. 55: 227
    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 857.
    • in F.T.A. 9: 114 (1917)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Jung, M.J., Chu, M.K., Hsu, T.C., Kao, R.C. & Dai, S.S. (2012). Four newly naturalised grasses and rushes in Taiwan Taiwania 57: 426-433.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0