1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Sorghum Moench
      1. Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia to Central Asia and Indo-China.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated; scaly. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 50-300 cm long. Culm-nodes pubescent. Leaves cauline. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades 20-90 cm long; 5-40 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; lanceolate, or pyramidal; 10-55 cm long; 3-25 cm wide. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes; moderately divided. Racemes 1.2-2.5 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1-5 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; ciliate.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 4.5-6.5 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; 5 -veined; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 4.5-5(-5.5) mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pubescent; base obtuse.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 4.5-6.5 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; 5 -veined; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; 4.5-5(-5.5) mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pubescent; base obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; pallid, or dark brown, or red, or purple, or black; 2-keeled; keeled above. Lower glume surface glabrous, or pubescent. Lower glume apex dentate; 3 -fid. Upper glume ovate; coriaceous; without keels. Upper glume surface glabrous, or pubescent.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 0.8 length of spikelet; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliolate on margins. Fertile lemma elliptic; 2-2.5 mm long; hyaline; 1 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 10-16 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn pubescent; hairy on the spiral. Palea present.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; ciliate.
    Distribution
    Europe: central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Soviet Middle Asia, Caucasus, western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: northwest USA, north-central USA, northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. Fl Pak.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose; clumped loosely. Rhizomes elongated. Culms 200-300 cm long; 5-10 mm diam. Culm-nodes glabrous, or pubescent. Lateral branches lacking, or sparse. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate; 30-90 cm long; 10-40 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface smooth. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; ovate, or pyramidal; 25-55 cm long; 10-25 cm wide. Primary panicle branches 4-5 -nate; whorled at most nodes; 10-20 cm long. Panicle branches flexuous. Racemes 1-2.2 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 2-5 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs white, or tawny; 0.5-1 mm long. Rhachis internodes linear; 2-4 mm long. Rhachis internode tip transverse. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; flattened; 2-4 mm long; ciliate.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 5-6.5 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; 7-8 -veined; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; subacute; 4-5.5 mm long; 1.5-2.3 mm wide; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 5-6.5 mm long; longer than fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; 7-8 -veined; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; dorsally compressed; subacute; 4-5.5 mm long; 1.5-2.3 mm wide; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus pilose; base obtuse.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; with lower wider than upper; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keels; keel-less except near apex; 8-12 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Lower glume margins ciliolate. Lower glume apex dentate; 3 -fid. Upper glume ovate; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keels; 7 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins. Upper glume margins scabrous.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 3.5-5 mm long; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliolate on margins; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 2.5-4 mm long; hyaline; 1 -veined. Lemma margins ciliolate. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; incised 0.2-0.25 of lemma length; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 10-16 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; oblong; fleshy; ciliate. Anthers 3; 2.5-3.5 mm long. Stigmas 2.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. Snowden 1993.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chad, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kuwait, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Myanmar, Nicobar Is., North Caucasus, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Tadzhikistan, Thailand, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, California, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Marianas, Marquesas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicaragua, Niue, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Rhode I., Romania, Réunion, Sardegna, Senegal, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Virginia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yugoslavia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1966 A.N.U. [1581], Philippines K000731284
    Sep 25, 1951 Mabille, P. [66], Corse K001050205
    Aug 22, 1951 Forskal [s.n.], Egypt K000244589
    Aug 21, 1951 Warion, A. [2286], Algeria K000731257
    Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [5457], Guerrero K000476338
    Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [13270], Michoacán K000476339
    Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [13270], Michoacán K000476340
    Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [13140], Michoacán K000476341
    Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [13140], Michoacán K000476342
    Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [1427], México State K000476343
    Jan 1, 1951 Hinton, G.B. [4031], México State K000476344
    Jul 5, 1934 s.coll. [s.n.] K001050204
    Silva, J.M. [1195], Brazil K001068753
    Matthew, K.M. [25337], India K000731268
    Filgueiras, T.S. [733], Brazil K001068755
    Teixeira, L.O.A. [313], Brazil K001068754
    Valls, J.F.M. [11688], Brazil K001068756
    Richards, P. [281216], Zimbabwe K000731363
    Raizada, M.B. [21330], India K000731269
    Remanandan, P. [4672], India K000731266
    Roy, G.P. [2751], India K000731267
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778] K001131620
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778] K001131621
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778] K001131622
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131623
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131624
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131625
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131626
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131627
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778], India K001131628
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778] K001131629
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8778] K001131630
    Shiu Ying Hu [5634], China K000731260
    Furese, M. [44813], China K000731259
    Mohd, J. [8099], Pakistan K000731262
    Nasin, E. [28485], Pakistan K000731263
    Jan 1, 1955 Gamble, J.S. [27139], India Sorghum miliaceum K000245614 holotype

    First published in Syn. Pl. 1: 101 (1805)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Baliousis, E. (2014). Recent data from the flora of the island of Limnos (NE Aegean, Greece): new alien invasive species affecting the agricultural economy of the island Edinburgh Journal of Botany 71: 275-285.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Meyer, F.K. (2011). Beiträge zur Flora von Albanien Haussknechtia, Beih. 15: 1-220.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Kharkevich, S.S., Probatova, N.S. & Novikov, V.S. (1985). Sosudistye rasteniia sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 1: 1-383. Izd-vo "Nauka," Leningradskoe otd-nie, Leningrad.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Seregin, A.P. (2014). Flora of Vladimir Oblast, Russia: grid data analysis: 1-441. KMK schientific press, Moscow.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hassler, M. (2012). Flora of Rhodes. Systematic list of flora of Rhodes http://www.rz.uni-karlsruhe.de/~db111/flora/rhodos/list.php.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Lambion, J., Delvosalle, L. & Duvigneaud, J. (2004). Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines, ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
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    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/