1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Sorghum Moench
      1. Sorghum nitidum (Vahl) Pers.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to NW. Pacific.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent. Culms erect; 100-200 cm long; wiry. Culm-nodes bearded. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades 30-60 cm long; 4-15 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open; lanceolate; dense, or loose; 10-30 cm long. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes; moderately divided; 2-5 cm long. Panicle branches flexuous. Racemes bearing few fertile spikelets; 2-4 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis hairs red. Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform. Spikelets appressed; in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; ciliate.
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; comprising 2 subequal glumes without lemmas, or male; ovate; dorsally compressed; 3-4.5 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas when present 2; enclosed by glumes; muticous. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acute; 3-4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus bearded; base obtuse. Spikelet callus hairs red.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; comprising 2 subequal glumes without lemmas, or male; ovate; dorsally compressed; 3-4.5 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; acute; muticous. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas when present 2; enclosed by glumes; muticous.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acute; 3-4.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus bearded; base obtuse. Spikelet callus hairs red.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume ovate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keels; keel-less except near apex. Lower glume surface pubescent; hairy above. Lower glume hairs red. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; coriaceous; much thinner above; without keels. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliate on margins; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; hyaline; 1 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; muticous, or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 7-17 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn glabrous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; oblong; fleshy; ciliate; hairy across the apex. Anthers 3. Stigmas 2; laterally exserted.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: northwestern.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. WDC.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bangladesh, Borneo, Caroline Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Japan, Jawa, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Marianas, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Pakistan, Philippines, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Sorghum nitidum (Vahl) Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2000 Brown, R. [6191], Australia K001050199 isotype
    Kerr, A.F.G. [6656], Thailand K000620412
    Kerr, A.F.G. [6656], Thailand K000620413
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19851], Thailand K000620414
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19851], Thailand K000620415
    Kerr, A.F.G. [6668], Thailand K000620416
    Kerr, A.F.G. [6668], Thailand K000620417
    Kerr, A.F.G. [2813], Thailand K000620418
    Kerr, A.F.G. [2813], Thailand K000620419
    Kerr, A.F.G. [8944], Thailand K000620430
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3112], Thailand K000620431
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3112], Thailand K000620432
    Parnell, J. [95-245], Thailand K000688613
    Smitinand, T. [1612], Thailand K000688618
    Smitinand, T. [2036], Thailand K000688619
    Put [2469], Thailand K000620420
    Put [2469], Thailand K000620421
    Put [3993], Thailand K000620426
    Put [3993], Thailand K000620427
    Put [2178], Thailand K000620428
    Put [2178], Thailand K000620429
    Marcan, A. [2595], Thailand K000620422
    Marcan, A. [2595], Thailand K000620425
    Shimizu, T. [T 10838], Thailand K000688616
    Tagawa, M. [T 9192], Thailand K000688615
    Murata, G. [T-16579], Thailand K000688617
    Laegaard [21703], Thailand K000688620
    Cuming, H. [1395], Philippines K001050202

    First published in Syn. Pl. 1: 101 (1805)

    Accepted by

    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0