1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Sporobolus R.Br.
      1. Sporobolus centrifugus (Trin.) Nees

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Congo to South Sudan and S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely caespitose perennial; culms 20–80 cm. high; basal sheaths indurated, yellow and horny, rarely broad and papery.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades filiform, 6–30 cm. long, mostly 1–1.5 mm. wide, the culm leaves sometimes broader and up to 5 mm. wide, hairy or glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle narrowly ovate to pyramidal, sometimes ± contracted, (4–)8–18 cm. long; primary branches in 4–8 whorls, the spikelets gathered into dense clusters at their tips.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 2.5–4.2 mm. long, glabrous, very dark green; lower glume narrowly lanceolate, 2.2–3.5 mm. long, three-quarters to as long as the spikelet, acuminate; upper glume lanceolate, as long as the spikelet, acuminate; lemma similar to the upper glume but a little shorter; anthers 3, 1.7–2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Grain ellipsoid, 1.7–2 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Short fire-swept grass in wooded grassland; 2300 m.
    Distribution
    K3 T4
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Densely caespitose perennial with short oblique rhizome; culms up to 80 cm tall, erect, unbranched; basal leaf sheaths expanded, indurated, horny and either yellow or chestnut-brown or rarely broad and chartaceous, glabrous or pilose, terete, persistent; leaf laminas 6–30 cm × 1–2.5 mm (but those higher up on the culm sometimes broader and up to 5 mm wide), stiff, tightly involute or rarely flat, glabrous or pilose on the surface, smooth or scabrid on the margins or rarely pectinate with tubercle-based setae, acute at the apex.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle (4)8–13(18) cm long, narrowly ovate to pyramidal, sometimes ± contracted; branches in a succession of whorls, these progressively shorter upwards, glabrous, with inconspicuous long linear glands, the spikelets in dense clusters at the tips of the primary branches.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets (2.2)2.7–4.7(5.2) mm long, very dark green; inferior glume 3/4 as long to almost as long as the spikelet, narrowly lanceolate, 0–1-nerved, glabrous, acuminate at the apex; superior glume as long as the spikelet, lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 1-nerved, glabrous, acuminate at the apex; lemma almost as long as the spikelet, lanceolate to narrowly ovate; anthers 3, (1)1.9–2.2 mm long.
    Fruits
    Grain 1.7–2.2 mm long, elliptic.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths indurate; yellow; glossy. Culms erect; 20-80 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades filiform; involute; 6-30 cm long; 1-1.5 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open, or contracted; pyramidal, or ovate; (4-)8-18 cm long; with spikelets clustered towards branch tips. Primary panicle branches whorled at most nodes (4-8 whorls). Panicle branches glabrous in axils. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 2.5-4.2 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 2.5-4.2 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes deciduous; similar; exceeding apex of florets. Lower glume oblong; 2.2-3.5 mm long; 0.75-1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acuminate. Upper glume oblong; 2.5-4.2 mm long; 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; dark green; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 2-4 mm long; membranous; dark green; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex acuminate. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels approximate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 1.7-2 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; ellipsoid; 1.7-2 mm long.
    Distribution
    Africa: northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. FTEA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cape Provinces, Congo, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Northern Provinces, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Sporobolus centrifugus (Trin.) Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hepper, F.N. [2125], Cameroon K000182221
    Hepper, F.N. [1789], Cameroon K000182222
    Schlechter, F.R.R. [3965], Transvaal K000365137 Unknown type material
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365138 Unknown type material
    Drege [184], South Africa K000365139 Unknown type material
    Buchanan [297], KwaZulu-Natal K000365134 Unknown type material
    Tyson, W. [1473], Cape Province K000365140 Unknown type material
    Baur, R. [555], Cape Province K000365135 Unknown type material
    J. Medley Wood [7218], KwaZulu-Natal K000365133 Unknown type material
    Boidge, E. M. [H 19813], KwaZulu-Natal K000365136 Unknown type material
    Jackson G. [2505], Cameroon K000182216
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [4013], Madagascar Sporobolus hildebrandtii K000244775

    First published in Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill.: 158 (1841)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 45 (1965).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 61 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 548 (1956).
    • Nees, Fl. Afr. Austr.: 158 (1841).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0