1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Sporobolus R.Br.
      1. Sporobolus festivus Hochst. ex A.Rich.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, India.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths glabrous; persistent and investing base of culm; with fibrous dead sheaths. Culms erect; 10-60 cm long. Leaf-sheaths outer margin glabrous, or hairy (ciliate). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades convolute; 2-7 cm long; 1-2 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; ovate; effuse; 3-22 cm long. Panicle branches capillary (red); glabrous in axils. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 1-1.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 1-1.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes deciduous; similar; shorter than spikelet. Lower glume oblong, or ovate; 0.4-0.6 mm long; 0.66 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 0.6-1 mm long; 0.5-0.66 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; grey, or purple; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute; muticous.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 1-1.5 mm long; membranous; grey, or purple; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex acute. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels approximate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.6-0.8 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; ellipsoid, or obovoid; 0.4-0.7 mm long.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial up to 60 cm. high, with strongly fibrous base
    Inflorescences
    Very delicate, often reddish, inflorescence
    Ecology
    Crevices and hollows in rock outcrops and shallow soils.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely caespitose perennial, the basal leaf-sheaths becoming fibrous with age; culms 10–60 cm. high, slender.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades mostly convolute, sometimes flat, 2–7 cm. long, 1–2 mm. wide; sheath margins glabrous or ciliate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle narrowly ovate, 3–22 cm. long, very delicate and diffuse, the branches capillary and tinged with red.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets very small, 1–1.5 mm. long, greyish green or purplish; lower glume narrowly ovate to oblong, 0.4–0.6 mm. long; upper glume narrowly ovate, 0.6–1 mm. long, 1/2–2/3 as long as the spikelet, acute; lemma narrowly ovate, as long as the spikelet, acute; anthers 3, 0.6–0.8 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Grain ellipsoid to obovoid, 0.4–0.7 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Well-drained open places in wooded grassland or deciduous bushland, usually on shallow or sandy soils; occasionally on seasonally waterlogged hardpan soils; particularly characteristic of crevices in rock outcrops; 20–2000 m.
    Distribution
    from Mauritania and the Somali Republic to South Africa (Transvaal) and South West Africa K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Densely caespitose perennial without rhizomes or stolons; culms up to 60(70) cm tall, erect, unbranched; basal leaf sheaths firmly chartaceous, glabrous or ciliate on the margins, terete, eventually disintegrating in to a cushion of persistent, glabrous or thinly pilose fibres; leaf laminas 2–15 cm × 1–2 mm, usually involute, sometimes flat, smooth or scaberulous on the surfaces, scabrid on the margins, acute at the apex.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 3–22 cm long, narrowly ovate, very delicate and diffuse, the branches capillary and tinged with red; primary branches not in whorls, smooth or scaberulous, eglandular, the spikelets evenly distributed.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1–1.6 mm long, greyish-green or purplish; inferior glume 1/5–1/3(2/5) the length of the spikelet, oblong to narrowly ovate, nerveless, glabrous, obtuse at the apex; superior glume 1/2–2/3 the length of the spikelet, narrowly ovate, 1-nerved, glabrous, acute or cuspidate at the apex, the nerve not excurrent; lemma as long as the spikelet, narrowly ovate, acute; anthers 3, 0.6–0.8 mm long.
    Fruits
    Grain 0.5–0.7(0.85) mm long, elliptic to obovate, oblong in section.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Free State, KwaZulu-Natal

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Saudi Arabia, Yemen

    Sporobolus festivus Hochst. ex A.Rich. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13556], Cameroon K000580326
    Jan 1, 1991 Schweinfurth, G. [1000], Ethiopia K000365251 Unknown type material
    Peter, A. [37919] K000365221
    Schimper [1692], Ethiopia K000365249 syntype
    Schimper [1692], Ethiopia K000365250 syntype
    Chevalier [9225], Central African Republic K000365295 Unknown type material
    Chevalier [8626], Central African Republic K000365296 Unknown type material
    Burtt, B. D. [1832] K000365222 Unknown type material

    First published in Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 398 (1850)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 412.
    • in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 112
    • incl. var. fibrosus Stapf ex Stent in Bothalia 2: 264 (1927)
    • Chev. Bot. 742
    • Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 398 (1850)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 410 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 48 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 57 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 29 (1958).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 61 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 549 (1956).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert3: 146 (1955).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 45 (1947).
    • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 398 (1851).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/