1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Sporobolus R.Br.
      1. Sporobolus ioclados (Nees ex Trin.) Nees

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa to Indian Subcontinent.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Stolons absent, or present. Butt sheaths herbaceous. Basal innovations subterete, or flabellate. Culms erect; 15-80 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat; 2-30 cm long; 2-5 mm wide. Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous; glabrous, or ciliate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open, or contracted; pyramidal; 3-20 cm long. Primary panicle branches spreading; whorled at most nodes (4-8 whorls); 3-15 cm long. Panicle branches glabrous in axils. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 1.5-3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 1.5-3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes deciduous; similar; reaching apex of florets, or shorter than spikelet. Lower glume oblong; 0.2-1 mm long; 0.25-0.33 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume oblong; 1.5-2.6 mm long; 0.66-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; pallid, or grey; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong; 1.5-3 mm long; membranous; pallid, or grey; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma surface smooth, or scaberulous. Lemma apex acute. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels approximate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.7-1 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; ellipsoid; 0.6-1 mm long.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: western Asia and Arabia. Asia-tropical: India.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. FTEA.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Densely caespitose perennial, sometimes short-lived, often with stolons, sometimes with a short oblique rhizome; culms up to 100 cm tall, ascending to erect, usually branched; basal leaf sheaths chartaceous to subcoriaceous, glabrous on the back, pilose near the margins, compressed and flabellate, persistent; leaf laminas 1.5–30 cm × 2–8.5 mm, coarse, flat, folded or involute, glabrous or scaberulous on the surface, the margins cartilaginous, scabrid and sometimes ciliate with tubercle-based hairs.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 5.5–25 cm long, narrowly ovate to pyramidal; branches, or at least the lowermost, in a succession of whorls but often the upper whorls somewhat irregular, scaberulous, eglandular or with linear glands, the spikelets on short secondary branchlets, these spreading or appressed, confined to the distal part of the primary branches.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.4–2.2 mm long, pallid to greyish-green or rarely purplish; inferior glume 1/4–1/2 the length of the spikelet, oblong to ovate (but widely variable even in the same panicle), nerveless, glabrous or minutely hispidulous, obtuse or denticulate to acute at the apex; superior glume (1/2)2/3 as long to as long as the spikelet, ovate, 1-nerved, glabrous or minutely hispidulous, acute at the apex; lemma as long as the spikelet or almost so, similar to the superior glume; anthers 3, 0.9–1.7 mm long.
    Fruits
    Grain 0.8–1.2 mm long, elliptic, somewhat laterally compressed.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Caespitose perennial 30–60 cm. high
    Ecology
    Seasonally moist, usually alkaline, soils in dry regions.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Caespitose perennial, sometimes short-lived, often spreading by means of stolons; culms 15–60 cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, 2–30 cm. long, 2–5 mm. wide, the margin ± cartilaginous and usually bearing stiff hairs; sheaths of the vegetative shoots often keeled and flabellately interleaved to form compact fascicles.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle ± pyramidal, usually spreading, 3–20 cm. long; primary branches in 4–8 whorls, with side branches 3–15 mm. long from the upper 2/3–3/4, sometimes reddish.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.5–2.2 mm. long, smooth or scaberulous, grey-green to pallid, rarely purplish; lower glume oblong, 0.2–0.8 mm. long, 1/4–1/3 as long as the upper, obtuse; upper glume oblong-elliptic, as long as the spikelet; lemma similar to the upper glume; anthers 3, 0.7–1 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Grain ellipsoid, 0.6–1 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Dry clayey soils, seasonally moist soils and hardpans in deciduous bushland, sometimes on saline soils; sea-level to 2000 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 throughout Africa, and in India
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tussocky perennial, the tufts often connected by stolons; culms 15–80 cm. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, rarely rolled, 2–20 cm. long, 2–5 mm. wide, finely ribbed above, stiff, usually with tubercle-based hairs or prickles on the margin near the base.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle narrowly ovate to pyramidal, usually spreading but sometimes ± contracted, 4–15 cm. long; primary branches in 4–7 whorls, usually simple with the spikelets appressed but sometimes branched, bare for the lower 1/4–1/3 of their length.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.5–3 mm. long, smooth or scaberulous, pallid grey; lower glume narrowly ovate to narrowly oblong, 0.5–1 mm. long, about 1/3 the length of the spikelet, obtuse; upper glume narrowly ovate to lanceolate, 1.1–2.6 mm. long, 2/3–4/5 as long as the lemma; lemma lanceolate-elliptic, as long as the spikelet; anthers 3, 0.9–1.2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Grain ellipsoid, 0.8–1.2 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Saline or alkaline grasslands, usually seasonally waterlogged; seashore sands and sandy patches in mangrove swamps; rarely on stony soils in deciduous bushland; sea-level to 1600 m.
    Distribution
    Somali Republic to Rhodesia K3 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T6 T7
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Densely caespitose perennial; culms 25–70 cm. high; basal sheaths somewhat cartilaginous, but not strongly indurated.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades filiform or involute, 3–14 cm. long, up to 3 mm. wide when flattened but usually less, stiff.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle pyramidal, 4–16 cm. long; primary branches in 4–8 whorls, the spikelets closely appressed along the upper 2/3–3/4 of their length.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.7–2.7 mm. long, glabrous, grey-green; lower glume lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, 0.6–1.4 mm. long, 1/3–1/2 as long as the spikelet (rarely 1/4–3/4); upper glume lanceolate-elliptic to ovate, usually as long as the spikelet; lemma similar to the upper glume but a little shorter; anthers 3, 1.2–1.5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Grain ellipsoid, 1.2–1.4 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Margins of salt lakes and in overgrazed deciduous bushland on saline soils; 700–2000 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4/T7 U2 U3

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Pan dropseed

    Sporobolus ioclados (Nees ex Trin.) Nees appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1991 Schimper [1777], Ethiopia K000365261 isotype
    Jan 1, 1991 Schimper, W. [2302], Ethiopia K000365259 Unknown type material
    Pole-Evans, I.B. [668], South Africa K000365190 Unknown type material
    Pole-Evans, I.B. [668], South Africa K000365191 Unknown type material
    Pole-Evans, I.B. [590], South Africa K000365192 Unknown type material
    Verdcourt [2625], Kenya K000365236 isotype
    Schimper [1777], Ethiopia K000365262 isotype
    Holst, C. [3126] K000365235 Unknown type material
    Zeyher [s.n.], South Africa K000365196
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365195 Unknown type material
    Drege [s.n.], Cape Province K000365198 Unknown type material
    Schimper, W. [2302], Ethiopia K000365260 Unknown type material
    Stent [556], South Africa K000365189 Unknown type material
    Mund [s.n.], Cape Province K000365194 Unknown type material
    Mund [s.n.], Cape Province K000365197 Unknown type material
    Stent, S. M. [H 21624], South Africa K000365185 Unknown type material
    Stent, S. M. [H 21624], South Africa K000365186 Unknown type material
    Evans, L. B. Pole. [2629], South Africa K000365187 Unknown type material
    Evans, L. B. Pole. [2629], South Africa K000365188 Unknown type material
    Gill, G. A. [7], Cape Province K000365193 syntype
    Royle, J.F. [s.n.], India K000245153 isotype
    Duttie, J.F. [5082], India K000907362
    Foley, W. J. [2825(?)], Cape Province Sporobolus rangei K000365181 Unknown type material

    First published in Fl. Afr. Austral. Ill.: 161 (1841)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fl. Afr. Austr. 161 (1841).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Al-Rawi, A. (1987). Flora of Kuwait 2: 1-455. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bor, N.L. (1970). Flora Iranica 70: 1-573. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 407 (1972).
    • Nees, Fl. Afr. Austr.: 161 (1841).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/