1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Sporobolus R.Br.
      1. Sporobolus pyramidalis P.Beauv.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America, Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Densely tufted perennial
    Note
    It belongs to a difficult group of closely related species allied to the American S. indicus Linn. (see also S. pellucidus and S. africanus).
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Butt sheaths herbaceous. Culms erect; 90-160 cm long; 2-5 mm diam. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 20-50 cm long; 3-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex attenuate; filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; pyramidal; 20-45 cm long; contracted about primary branches. Primary panicle branches spreading; 5-10 cm long; bearing spikelets almost to the base. Panicle branches glabrous in axils. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear; 0.5-1 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 1.7-2 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 1.7-2 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes deciduous; similar; subequal in width; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 0.2-0.6 mm long; 0.5-0.8 length of upper glume; without keels; 0 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume oblong; 0.5-0.8 mm long; 0.3-0.4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex obtuse.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma ovate; 1.7-2 mm long; membranous; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex acute. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels approximate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.6-1.1 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; obovoid; 0.8-1 mm long.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Asia-tropical: Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, and northwestern. North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, and Brazil.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. FTEA.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Caespitose perennial without rhizomes or stolons; culms up to 210 cm tall, 2–5 mm in diameter at the base (sometimes less), erect, unbranched; basal leaf sheaths chartaceous, glabrous, slightly compressed to strongly keeled, persistent; leaf laminas up to 50 cm × 3–10 mm, flat (folded on drying), smooth and glabrous on the surfaces and margins, tapering to a flexuous filiform apex.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle 20–45 cm long, narrowly pyramidal; primary branches not in whorls, spreading horizontally at anthesis, the longest 5–10 cm long, scaberulous, eglandular, subsecund, the spikelets densely (sometimes rather loosely) arranged along their whole length, sometimes on short secondary branchlets.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets (1.4)1.7–2(2.3) mm long, green to greyish or purplish; inferior glume 1/5–1/3 the length of the spikelet, broadly oblong, hyaline, nerveless, glabrous, obtuse to truncate at the apex, sometimes irregularly toothed or erose; superior glume 1/3–1/2(3/5) the length of the spikelet, broadly oblong to broadly ovate or even oblate, hyaline, 1-nerved, scaberulous on the nerve, broadly obtuse to truncate at the apex, often apiculate, sometimes ± 3-lobed, irregularly toothed or erose; lemma as long as the spikelet, ovate-elliptic, acute at the apex; anthers 3, 0.6–1.1 mm long.
    Fruits
    Grain 0.8–1 mm long, obovate, conspicuously truncate, laterally compressed and oblong in section.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial, the basal sheaths neither fibrous nor broad and papery; culms mostly 90–160 cm. high and 2–5 mm. in diameter at the base, but sometimes less.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, or convolute when dry, up to 50 cm. long, 3–10 mm. wide, tapering to a flexuous filiform tip.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle narrowly pyramidal, 20–45 cm. long; primary branches spreading horizontally at anthesis, subsecund, densely spiculate along their whole length, the lowest mostly 5–10 cm. long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.7–2 mm. long, green or purplish; lower glume broadly oblong, 0.2–0.6 mm. long, hyaline, nerveless; upper glume broadly oblong, 0.5–0.8 mm. long, 1/4–1/3 as long as the spikelet, obtuse; lemma ovate-elliptic, as long as the spikelet, acute; anthers 3, 0.6–1.1 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Grain obovoid, 0.8–1 mm. long, conspicuously truncate.
    Habitat
    A widespread species, mainly in places subject to disturbance; sea-level to 2500 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 throughout tropical Africa, extending into South Africa, Madagascar, Mauritius and Yemenalso (probably introduced) in French Guiana and Brazil. Plants of similar form are to be found in Africa, mainly in the west, suggesting the introduction of S. jacquemontii from America. The following East African specimens are typical:
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 2000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Southwest Caribbean, Sudan, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Cook Is., Ecuador, Fiji, Hawaii, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Myanmar, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Réunion, Solomon Is., Tokelau-Manihiki, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia

    Common Names

    English
    Cat's tail dropseed, Cat's tail grass, Narrow-plumed dropseed, White herring-bone grass

    Sporobolus pyramidalis P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2171], Cameroon K000436282
    Jun 1, 2001 Cable, S. [2700], Cameroon K000107898
    Jan 1, 1996 Marsden, J. [18], Cameroon K000182194
    Oct 1, 1962 Brunt, M.A. [428], Cameroon K000182195
    Oct 1, 1962 Brunt, M.A. [438], Cameroon K000182203
    Mar 1, 1962 Maitland, T.D. [4 A], Cameroon K000182202
    Jan 1, 1962 Maitland, T.D. [85], Cameroon K000182199
    Maitland, T.D. [173], Cameroon K000182198
    Clayton, W.D. [4226], Brazil K001102040
    Clayton, W.D. [4278], Brazil K001102045
    Clayton, W.D. [4206], Brazil K001102046
    Clayton, W.D. [4524], Brazil K001102050
    Hatschbach, G. [49119], Brazil K001102048
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000308852
    Anderson, W.R. [35588], Brazil K001102052
    Davidse, G. [11462], Brazil K001102047
    Kummrow, R. [305], Brazil K001102042
    Lanna [499], Brazil K001102051
    Riedel [s.n.], Brazil K001102054
    Archer, W.A. [7675], Brazil K001102057
    Thomas, S.A. [M 21], Niger K000365311 Unknown type material
    Dalziel [1132a], Niger K000365312 Unknown type material
    Kennedy, J. D. [2643], Nigeria K000365313 Unknown type material
    Harris, T. [431], Mozambique K000613867
    Ferreira, S. [114], Brazil K001102049
    Dombrowski, L.T. [1626], Brazil K001102041
    Dombrowski, L.T. [5788], Brazil K001102043
    Dombrowski, L.T. [5749], Brazil K001102044
    Glaziou, A. [490], Brazil K001102053
    Gardner [209], Brazil K001102055
    Brunt, M.A. [1045], Cameroon K000182192
    Brunt, M.A. [1034], Cameroon K000182193
    Edmonstone [s.n.], Brazil K001102056
    Oct 1, 1962 Brunt, M.A. [260 B], Cameroon Sporobolus jacquemontii K000182224
    Mar 1, 1962 Thorold, C.A. [TN 98], Cameroon Sporobolus jacquemontii K000182228
    Jan 1, 1962 Maitland, T.D. [1176], Cameroon Sporobolus jacquemontii K000182223
    Jan 1, 1962 Maitland, T.D. [18], Cameroon Sporobolus jacquemontii K000182227
    Brunt, M.A. [1044], Cameroon Sporobolus jacquemontii K000182225
    Chuml, H. [107], Cameroon Sporobolus jacquemontii K000182226

    First published in Fl. Oware 2: 36 (1816)

    Accepted by

    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Starr, F. & Starr, K. (2011). New plant records for Midway atoll, Maui and Kaho'olawe Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 110: 23-35.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 415
    • Clayton in Kew Bull. 19: 289.
    • Chev. Bot. 732
    • Fl. Oware 2: 36 (1812)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Barger, T.W. & al. (2012). New and noteworthy records for the flora of Alabama Castanea 77: 257-269.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Starr, F. & Starr, K. (2011). New plant records for Midway atoll, Maui and Kaho'olawe Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 110: 23-35.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 408 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 47 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 56 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 29 (1958).
    • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 61 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 548 (1956).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 144 (1955).
    • Edwards & Bogdan, Imp. grassl. pl. Kenya: 40 (1951).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 46 (1947).
    • P. Beauv., Fl. Owar. Benin 2: 36, t. 80 (1816).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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