1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Sporobolus R.Br.
      1. Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl) Kunth

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa to Arabian Peninsula, W. Himalaya to India.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; mat forming, or caespitose. Stolons present; with alternating elongated and bunched internodes. Culms 10-70 cm long; wiry. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or convolute; 2-30 cm long; 1-4 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade apex pungent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; 1.5-20 cm long; 0.2-0.4 cm wide. Primary panicle branches appressed; 0.1-0.3(-0.5) cm long. Panicle branches glabrous in axils. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 1.4-2.2(-2.8) mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 1.4-2.2(-2.8) mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes deciduous; similar; reaching apex of florets, or shorter than spikelet. Lower glume lanceolate, or ovate; 0.2-1 mm long; 0.25-0.33 length of upper glume; hyaline; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 0.8-2.2 mm long; 0.66-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline; pallid; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma oblong; 1.4-2.2(-2.8) mm long; hyaline; pallid; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex acute. Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels approximate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 1-1.2 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free soft pericarp; ellipsoid; 0.7-1.1 mm long.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, and south. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Asia-tropical: India.
    Reference
    Eragrostideae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Stoloniferous perennial 30–60 cm. high
    Leaves
    The leaves painfully pungent
    Ecology
    Alkaline or saline soils.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:2. 1999

    Habit
    Caespitose, mat-forming perennial; culms up to 60(75) cm tall, decumbent or erect, branched or unbranched, wiry, often with fascicles of shoots at the nodes, these arching over and rooting to form long looping stolons; basal leaf sheaths chartaceous, glabrous, terete, persistent; leaf laminas 5–30 cm × 1–4 mm, glaucous, stiff, usually involute, rarely flat, glabrous, scabrid on the margins, pungent and often painfully spiny.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle (1.5)3–22 cm long, smoothly cylindrical; primary branches not in whorls, 1–3(5) mm long, closely appressed to the axis, glabrous, eglandular, the spikelets densely packed along the whole length.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.6–2.7 mm long, pallid or pale green; inferior glume 1/4–1/2 the length of the spikelet, lanceolate to broadly ovate, hyaline, nerveless, glabrous, truncate to subacute at the apex; superior glume 2/3–4/5 the length of the spikelet, narrowly ovate, rarely narrowly lanceolate and as long as the spikelet, hyaline, 1-nerved, glabrous, acute at the apex; lemma as long as the spikelet, oblong-elliptic; anthers 3, 0.9–1.3 mm long.
    Fruits
    Grain 0.7–1.2 mm long, elliptic, ± triangular in section.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Short tufted perennial, sometimes aggregated into mats; culms 10–70 cm. high, wiry, often with fascicles of shoots at the nodes, these arching over and rooting to form long looping stolons.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades 2–30 cm. long, usually convolute, sometimes flat and 1–4 mm. wide, stiff, pungent at the tip and often painfully spiny.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle spike-like, compactly cylindrical, slender, 1.5–20 cm. long, 2–4 mm. wide, the primary branches closely appressed and 1–3(–5) mm. long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.4–2.2(–2.8) mm. long, usually pallid; lower glume broadly ovate to lanceolate, 0.2–1 mm. long, typically 1/4–1/3 as long as the spikelet, hyaline; upper glume narrowly ovate, 0.8–2.2 mm. long (rarely narrowly lanceolate and up to 2.8 mm. long), 2/3 to as long as the spikelet, hyaline; lemma oblong-elliptic, as long as the spikelet, hyaline; anthers 3, 1–1.2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Grain ellipsoid, 0.7–1.1 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Grassland and open bushland on saline or alkaline soils of lake shores, flood plains, pans and stream beds; sea-level to 2600 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1 the drier regions of Africa from the Mediterranean coast to South Africa (Transvaal), extending through the Middle East to India

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Gulf States, India, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Spiking grass

    Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl) Kunth appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 1932 s.coll. [s.n.] K000907352

    First published in Révis. Gramin. 1: 67 (1829)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 392
    • De Miré & Gillet in J. Agric. Trop. 3: 736.
    • in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 115
    • Chev. Bot. 743
    • Rev. Gram. 1: 67 (1829)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Cope, T. (1999). Flora Zambesiaca 10(2): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 408 (1972).
    • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 46 (1965).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 56 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 28 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 547 (1956).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 141 (1955).
    • Edwards & Bogdan, Imp. grassl. pl. Kenya: 42 (1951).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 46 (1947).
    • Kunth, Rév. Gram. 1: 67 (1829).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/