1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Stenotaphrum Trin.
      1. Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. U.S.A. to E. & S. South America, W. Tropical Africa to Chad.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; mat forming. Stolons present. Basal innovations flabellate. Culms prostrate; 10-30 cm long. Leaf-sheaths keeled. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades conduplicate; 2-15 cm long; 4-9 mm wide. Leaf-blade apex obtuse.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; deciduous as a whole. Racemes borne along a central axis; in a unilateral false spike; sunken; unilateral; 0.5-1 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1-3 fertile spikelets on each. Central inflorescence axis 2-10 cm long; corky; tough; tip subulate. Rhachis flattened; terminating in a barren extension; extension subulate. Spikelet packing abaxial. Spikelets sunken (in axis); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; dorsally compressed; 5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.1-0.3 length of upper glume; 0.1-0.3 length of spikelet; membranous; pallid; without keels. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume ovate; membranous; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; 7-9 -veined; without grooves; acute. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 4.5 mm long; chartaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acute. Palea chartaceous.
    Distribution
    Europe: southwestern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, southern tropical, south, and middle Atlantic ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia and China. Asia-tropical: Malesia and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central. North America: south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTA.
    Diagnostic
    Back of inflorescence axis entire.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Equatorial Guinea, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mississippi, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Carolina, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Tennessee, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Virginia, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Algeria, Ascension, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Burkina, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Colombia, Cook Is., Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, Galápagos, Greece, Guinea, Gulf States, Hawaii, Italy, Kenya, Kermadec Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Line Is., Madeira, Malaya, Marianas, Marshall Is., Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, New Caledonia, New Mexico, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niger, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Philippines, Portugal, Queensland, Samoa, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Australia, Spain, St.Helena, Swaziland, Tasmania, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Vanuatu, Victoria, Vietnam, Western Australia, Zimbabwe

    Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1970 Scholz [113], Burkina Faso K000212229
    Trinidad & Tobago K000643053
    Harley, R.M. [17152], Bahia K000004617
    Harley, R.M. [17588], Bahia K000004616
    Maitland, T.D. [25], Cameroon K000022843
    Maitland, T.D. [25A], Cameroon K000022844
    Maitland, T.D. [25B], Cameroon K000022845
    Maitland, T.D. [25C], Cameroon K000022846
    Clayton, W.D. [4434], Brazil K001102906
    Clayton, W.D. [4689], Brazil K001102910
    Hatschbach, G. [71840], Brazil K001102894
    Hatschbach, G. [13619], Brazil K001102899
    Sucre, D. [1348], Brazil K001102903
    s.coll. [37], Windward Is. K000643052
    Castellanos, A. [23090], Brazil K001102918
    Castellanos, A. [22654], Brazil K001102919
    Ribas, O.S. [3381], Brazil K001102893
    Klein [11720], Brazil K001102913
    Riedel [52], Brazil K001102892
    Riedel [s.n.], Brazil K001102896
    Archer, W.A. [8456], Brazil K001102916
    Gaudichaud [s.n.], Brazil K001102898
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K001102891
    Balbis [s.n.] K001102897
    Klein, R.M. [9974], Brazil K001102904
    Klein, R.M. [10633], Brazil K001102905
    Klein, R.M. [10227], Brazil K001102909
    Klein, R.M. [10780], Brazil K001102911
    Klein, R.M. [10794], Brazil K001102912
    Dombrowski, L.T. [2420], Brazil K001102900
    Dombrowski, L.T. [4161], Brazil K001102901
    Miers [3884], Brazil K001102914
    Miers [3884], Brazil K001102915
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001102895
    Burchell [1567], Brazil K001102907
    Burchell [2890], Brazil K001102908
    Pelanda, G. [2], Brazil K001102902
    Goodenough, B. [s.n.], Brazil K001102917

    First published in Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 794 (1891)

    Accepted by

    • Valdés-Reyna, J. Villaseñor, J.L., Encina-Domínguez, J.A. & Oritz, E. (2015). The grass family (Poaceae) in Coahuila, Mexico: diversity and distribution Botanical Sciences 93: 119-129.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. & Pensiero, J.F. (2014). Gramineae VI Flora del Paraguay 45: 1-392. Editions des Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la ville de Genève.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Rosati, L. & al. (2012). Un aggiornamento alla flora del Cilento e della Campania Informatore Botanico Italiano 44: 111-119.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Parham, B.E.V. (1971). The Vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 576-609.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Valdés-Reyna, J. Villaseñor, J.L., Encina-Domínguez, J.A. & Oritz, E. (2015). The grass family (Poaceae) in Coahuila, Mexico: diversity and distribution Botanical Sciences 93: 119-129.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. & Pensiero, J.F. (2014). Gramineae VI Flora del Paraguay 45: 1-392. Editions des Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la ville de Genève.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Dimopoulos, P., Raus, T., Bergmeier, E., Constantinidis, T., Iatrou, G., Kokkini, S., Strid, A., & Tzanoudakis, D. (2013). Vascular plants of Greece. An annotated checklist: 1-372. Botanic gardens and botanical museum Berlin-Dahlem, Berlin and Hellenic botanical society, Athens.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Rosati, L. & al. (2012). Un aggiornamento alla flora del Cilento e della Campania Informatore Botanico Italiano 44: 111-119.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • H?, P.-H. (2000). Câyc? Vi?tnam. An Illustrated flora of Vietnam, ed. 2, 3: 1-1020. Pham-hoang Ho, Montréal.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1989). Flora Zambesiaca 10(3): 1-231. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Parham, B.E.V. (1971). The Vegetation of the Tokelau Islands with special reference to the plants of Nukunonu Atoll New Zealand Journal of Botany 9: 576-609.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0