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This species is accepted, and its native range is Indian Subcontinent to N. Thailand, Andaman Islands.

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Annual. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 30-200 cm long; 4-6 mm diam.; 5-7 -noded; with prop roots. Culm-nodes glabrous. Leaf-sheaths keeled. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-2.5 mm long. Leaf-blades 7-30 cm long; 3-6 mm wide; flaccid. Leaf-blade surface smooth, or scaberulous; rough adaxially; glabrous, or pilose. Leaf-blade margins scabrous. Leaf-blade apex acute, or acuminate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Synflorescence compound; fasciculate; 15-50 cm long. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Spatheole lanceolate; 7.5-16 cm long; scarious; red; without tubercles, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pilose. Peduncle 1.3 cm long. Racemes 1; single; cuneate; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Spikelets in threes (basal paired). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels oblong; 0.5 mm long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 4 in number; forming an involucre about the fertile; with both pairs arising at about the same level; subsessile; linear, or lanceolate; 4.5-6 mm long; equalling fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; tuberculate on margins and setose on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; comprising 2 subequal glumes without lemmas; linear; 5-6 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear. Companion sterile spikelet glumes smooth; glabrous. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; subterete; 5-5.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus oblong; bearded; base obtuse; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red.
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 4 in number; forming an involucre about the fertile; with both pairs arising at about the same level; subsessile; linear, or lanceolate; 4.5-6 mm long; equalling fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes chartaceous; tuberculate on margins and setose on margins; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; comprising 2 subequal glumes without lemmas; linear; 5-6 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear. Companion sterile spikelet glumes smooth; glabrous.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; subterete; 5-5.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus oblong; bearded; base obtuse; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; much thinner above; dark brown; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Lower glume surface puberulous. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume oblong; 3 -veined. Upper glume margins ciliolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 3 mm long; hyaline; 1 -veined; without lateral veins. Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; geniculate; 10-45 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn hirtellous. Palea absent or minute.
Distribution
Africa: northeast tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, and China. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern. North America: southwest USA and southeast . South America: Caribbean and southern South America.
Reference
Andropogoneae. FTA.

Native to:

Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, East Himalaya, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, West Himalaya

Introduced into:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Brazil South, California, Cape Provinces, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Fiji, Florida, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Iraq, Jamaica, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mexico Central, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Oman, Queensland, Rodrigues, Réunion, Seychelles, Socotra, Solomon Is., Turkey, Vietnam, Windward Is.

Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 1974 Gentry, A. [11931], Madagascar K000743007
Kerr, A.F.G. [6494], Thailand K000620631
Kerr, A.F.G. [4589], Thailand K000620632
Kerr, A.F.G. [6513b], Thailand K000620642
de la Bathie, P. [157], Madagascar K000743008

First published in Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 793 (1891)

Accepted by

  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Veldkamp, J.F. (2016). A revision of Themeda (Gramineae) in Malesia with a new species from Laos Blumea 61: 29-40.
  • Devi, M. & Bhattacharyya, D. (2016). Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze (Poaceae): a new record for Assam, India The Indian Forester 142: 302-303.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Veldkamp, J.F. (2016). A revision of Themeda (Gramineae) in Malesia with a new species from Laos Blumea 61: 29-40.
  • Devi, M. & Bhattacharyya, D. (2016). Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze (Poaceae): a new record for Assam, India The Indian Forester 142: 302-303.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
  • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.
  • Voeltzkow, A. (1917). Flora und Fauna der Comoren: 428-480.
  • de Cordemoy, E.J. (1895). Flore de l'ile de la Réunion: 1-574. Librairie des sciences naturelles Paul Klincksieck, Paris.

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
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