1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Themeda Forssk.
      1. Themeda triandra Forssk.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Australia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; 30-200 cm long. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades 10-30 cm long; 1-8 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; fasciculate; 10-30 cm long. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; enclosed. Spatheole lanceolate; 1.5-3.5 cm long; scarious; brown, or red; without tubercles, or tuberculate. Racemes 1; single; cuneate; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Spikelets in threes (basal paired). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. Pedicels oblong; 0.5 mm long.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 4 in number; forming an involucre about the fertile; with both pairs arising at about the same level; subsessile; 6-14 mm long; equalling fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; elliptic; 6-14 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long; 2-toothed. Companion sterile spikelet glumes smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; subterete; 6-11 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 2-4 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 4 in number; forming an involucre about the fertile; with both pairs arising at about the same level; subsessile; 6-14 mm long; equalling fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; elliptic; 6-14 mm long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus linear; 2-3 mm long; 2-toothed. Companion sterile spikelet glumes smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; subterete; 6-11 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; 2-4 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs red.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; shiny. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; dark brown; without keels; 7-9 -veined. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume oblong; 3 -veined.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 4 mm long; hyaline; 0 -veined; without midvein; without lateral veins. Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical; geniculate; 25-70 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn hispidulous. Palea absent or minute.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: southwestern.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Tufted perennial 1·2–1·8 m. high
    Bracts
    Rusty brown spatheoles
    Note
    A most important grazing grass in eastern and southern Africa, where it is often a dominant constituent of grasslands.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial; culms 30 cm. to 2 m. high, erect.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades flat, up to 30 cm. long or more, and 1–8 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Homogamous pairs arising at about the same level; lower glume narrowly elliptic, 6–14 mm. long, glabrous to tuberculate-hirsute. False panicle up to about 30 cm. long, composed of wedge-shaped clusters of 2–8 racemes enfolded by spatheoles and spathes; spatheole 1.5–3.5 cm. long, russet coloured, glabrous to tuberculate-pilose; raceme containing 1 fertile spikelet.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet 6–11 mm. long, including a pungent rufously bearded callus 2–4 mm. long; lower glume brown, smooth except for the appressedly pubescent tip; awn 2.5–7 cm. long, puberulous. Pedicelled spikelet 6–14 mm. long, glabrous or tuberculate-pilose; callus 2–3 mm. long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 6–11 mm. long, including a pungent rufously bearded callus 2–4 mm. long; lower glume brown, smooth except for the appressedly pubescent tip; awn 2.5–7 cm. long, puberulous.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet 6–14 mm. long, glabrous or tuberculate-pilose; callus 2–3 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 192.
    Habitat
    Widespread in open deciduous bushland, and often the dominant species; 0–3200 m.
    Distribution
    tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Caespitose perennial; culms up to 200 cm high, erect.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminas up to, or exceeding, 30 cm × 1–8 mm, flat.
    Inflorescences
    False panicle up to c. 30 cm long, composed of wedge-shaped clusters of 2–8 racemes enfolded by spatheoles and spathes; spatheole 1.5–3.5 cm long, russet-coloured, glabrous to tuberculate-pilose; raceme containing 1 fertile spikelet.
    Homogamous
    Homogamous spikelet pairs arising at about the same level, the internode barely perceptible; inferior glume 6–14 mm long, narrowly elliptic, glabrous to tuberculate-pilose.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 6–11 mm long (including the pungent rufously barbate callus 2–4 mm long); inferior glume brown, smooth except for the appressed-pubescent apex; awn 2.5–7 cm long, puberulous.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet 6–14 mm long, glabrous or tuberculate-pilose; callus 2–3 mm long. Homogamous spikelet pairs arising at about the same level, the internode barely perceptible; inferior glume 6–14 mm long, narrowly elliptic, glabrous to tuberculate-pilose. Sessile spikelet 6–11 mm long (including the pungent rufously barbate callus 2–4 mm long); inferior glume brown, smooth except for the appressed-pubescent apex; awn 2.5–7 cm long, puberulous.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet 6–14 mm long, glabrous or tuberculate-pilose; callus 2–3 mm long.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, Guinea, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Thailand, Tibet, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    France, New Caledonia, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Solomon Is.

    Themeda triandra Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1775 Strachey, R. [03], India K000245949
    Jan 1, 1775 Hohenacker, R.F. [1287], Tamil Nadu K000911714 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1775 Wight, R. [1709], India K000245964 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1775 Royle [s.n.], India K000245948 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1775 Wallich, N. [8764], India K000245963 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1775 Fielding [s.n.], Assam K000245962
    Hubbard, C.E. [7332], Queensland K000911790
    Kerr, A.F.G. [8036], Thailand K000620633
    Kerr, A.F.G. [13513], Thailand K000620634
    Kerr, A.F.G. [13513], Thailand K000620635
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19505], Thailand K000620636
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19581], Thailand K000620637
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19581], Thailand K000620638
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19560], Thailand K000620639
    Kerr, A.F.G. [19610], Thailand K000620640
    Kerr, A.F.G. [6512], Thailand K000620641
    Kerr, A.F.G. [6513a], Thailand K000620645
    Kerr, A.F.G. [7946], Thailand K000620643
    Sorensen, Th. [4394], Thailand K000688939
    Burkill, H.M. [HMB. 1239], Thailand K000688938
    Burchell [2095], South Africa K000280077
    Burchell [1844], South Africa K000280078
    Burchell [2136-2], South Africa K000280079
    Burchell [2136/2], South Africa K000280080
    Schimper [1555], Ethiopia K000280100 isosyntype
    Schimper [1555], Ethiopia K000280104 isosyntype
    Schimper [73], Ethiopia K000280101 isosyntype
    Schimper [73], Ethiopia K000280102 isosyntype
    Bidgood, S. [5159], Tanzania K000190387
    Thomson, T. [s.n.], Himachal Pradesh K001080746
    Smitinand, T. [1139], Thailand K000688934
    Smitinand, T. [2046], Thailand K000688935
    Smitinand, T. [6294], Thailand K000688936
    Smitinand, T. [6191], Thailand K000688937
    Put [4249], Thailand K000620644
    Cuming, H. [1673], Philippines K000290050 isosyntype
    Zeyher, South Africa K000280071
    Drège, South Africa K000280069 isosyntype
    Drège, South Africa K000280070 isosyntype
    Drège, South Africa K000280073
    Drège, South Africa K000280072 isosyntype
    Drège, South Africa K000280074 isosyntype
    Drège [s.n.], South Africa K000280075
    Drège [s.n.], South Africa K000280076
    Hosseus, C.C. [146 a], Thailand K000688942
    Griffith, W. [579], Bhutan K000911715
    Boissier, E. [s.n.], Syria K000911717
    Wallich, N. [8775], Nepal K000245947 isotype
    Wallich, N. [1709], Tamil Nadu K000911713
    Harris, T. [457], Mozambique K000613893
    Lindhard, E. [s.n.], Thailand K000688940
    Lindhard, E. [s.n.], Thailand K000688941
    Timberlake, J. [5040], Mozambique K000613419
    Timberlake, J. [5311], Malawi K000614657
    Timberlake, J. [5317], Malawi K000614663
    Phloenchit [62], Thailand K000688933
    Balansa, B. [740], Turkey K000911718
    Walpur [558], Madagascar K000743006
    Drummond, J. [984] Themeda australis K000911786 holotype
    Brown, R. [6194], Australia Themeda australis K000911787 Unknown type material
    Brown, R. [6194], South Australia Themeda australis K000911788 Unknown type material
    Gunn, R.C. [s.n.], Tasmania Themeda australis K000911789

    First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 178 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • Veldkamp, J.F. (2016). A revision of Themeda (Gramineae) in Malesia with a new species from Laos Blumea 61: 29-40.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 420.
    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 13: 878
    • F.T.A. 9: 416
    • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. cxxiii & 178 (1775)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Veldkamp, J.F. (2016). A revision of Themeda (Gramineae) in Malesia with a new species from Laos Blumea 61: 29-40.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (2014- continuously updated). Atlas of Living Australia http://www.ala.org.au/.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1993). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 2(2): 433-968. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1985). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 9: 1-724. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
    • Bor, N.L. (1968). Flora of Iraq 9: 1-588. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 471 (1972).
    • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 58 (1960).
    • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 62 (1958).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 70 (1955).
    • Edwards & Bogdan, Imp. Grassl. Pl. Kenya: 84 (1951).
    • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 47 (1947).
    • Robyns, Fl. Agrost. Congo Belge 1: 216 (1929).
    • Hubbard, E.A. Pasture Plants 1: 28 (1926).
    • Stapf in Flora of Tropical Africa 9: 416 (1919).
    • Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 178 (1775).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0