1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Thuarea Pers.
      1. Thuarea involuta (G.Forst.) R.Br. ex Sm.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Madagascar, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to Pacific.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Culms prostrate; 5-10 cm long; rooting from lower nodes. Leaf-sheaths pubescent. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades lanceolate; 1.5-5 cm long; 3-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface pubescent. Leaf-blade margins scaberulous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; deciduous as a whole; subtended by sheathless blades; enclosed. Peduncle terete (5mm long); widened at apex; disarticulating; disarticulating above uppermost sheath; base blunt. Racemes 1; single; erect; lanceolate; unilateral; 1-1.5 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1(-2) fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis broadly winged; foliaceous; folded transversely to form a capsule; puberulous on surface; terminating in a sterile spikelet. Spikelet packing adaxial; regular; 1 -rowed. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile.
    Sterile
    Apical sterile spikelets male (deciduous); 4-6 in number; 4 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 5.3 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Apical sterile spikelets male (deciduous); 4-6 in number; 4 mm long.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; 5.3 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Upper glume ovate; 5.3 mm long; membranous; without keels; 5-7 -veined. Upper glume surface pubescent. Upper glume margins ciliate. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to upper glume; ovate; 4.8 mm long; 0.9 length of spikelet; membranous; 5 -veined; pubescent; ciliate on margins; acute. Palea of lower sterile floret pilose. Fertile lemma ovate; 4.4 mm long; indurate; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma apex acute. Palea indurate.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2.2 mm long.
    Distribution
    Africa: western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. Pacific: southwestern, south-central, northwestern, and north-central.
    Reference
    Paniceae. WDC.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China Southeast, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., Fiji, Gilbert Is., Hainan, Hawaii, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Laccadive Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maldives, Maluku, Marianas, Marshall Is., Nansei-shoto, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Society Is., Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Introduced into:

    Tokelau-Manihiki

    Thuarea involuta (G.Forst.) R.Br. ex Sm. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9285], Thailand K000621038
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11185], Thailand K000621039
    Kerr, A.F.G. [14101], Thailand K000621040
    Thailand K000688145
    Brown, R. [6145], Australia K000885810
    Brown, R. [s.n.], Australia K000885813
    Marcan, A. [2291], Thailand K000621041
    Marcan, A. [2291], Thailand K000621042
    Dallachy, J. [s.n.], Australia K000885814
    Ryves, T.B. [KS95/1003], Thailand K000688147
    Collins, X.J. [950], Thailand K000688146
    Quayle, E.H. [236], Society Is. K000885809 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [197], Australia K000885811 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.], New Guinea K000885812

    First published in A.Rees, Cycl. 35(II.70): s.p. (1817)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Peekel, P.G. (1984). Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists: 1-638. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
    • Camus, E.G. & Camus, A. in H. Lecomte (1922). Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 1(3): 193-336.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0