1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Thysanolaena Nees
      1. Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Honda

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms 200-400 cm long. Culm-internodes solid. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long. Leaf-blades deciduous at the ligule; 30-60 cm long; 30-70 mm wide; stiff. Leaf-blade venation with distinct cross veins. Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous; scaberulous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; bearing juvenile spikelets at emergence. Panicle open; oblong, or ovate; 30-60 cm long; 15-30 cm wide; contracted about primary branches. Primary panicle branches appressed, or spreading. Panicle branches stiff; bearded in axils. Spikelets solitary, or in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 1-2 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; 0.5-1 mm long; scaberulous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 1.5-2 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with the pedicel; readily shedding fertile florets; pedicel base truncate.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 1.5-2 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with the pedicel; readily shedding fertile florets; pedicel base truncate.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 0.65 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 0.7 mm long; 0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret similar to fertile lemma; lanceolate; 1.8 mm long; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 1-3 -veined; eciliate on margins, or ciliate on margins; acute. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 1.4 mm long; membranous; much thinner on margins; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex acute. Palea 0.5 length of lemma. Rhachilla extension 0.1 length of fertile floret.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 2; 0.6-1 mm long. Stigmas 2. Ovary glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 0.5-0.6 mm long. Hilum punctiform.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, east tropical, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Pacific: north-central.
    Reference
    Arundineae. FTA.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Brazil West-Central, California, Cuba, Gambia, Hawaii, Mauritius, Seychelles, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

    Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. ex Hornem.) Honda appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9371], Thailand K000621699
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9957], Thailand K000621700
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9957], Thailand K000621701
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11592], Thailand K000621702
    Kerr, A.F.G. [14657], Thailand K000621703
    Kerr, A.F.G. [14657], Thailand K000621704
    Kerr, A.F.G. [17818], Thailand K000621705
    Kerr, A.F.G. [18017], Thailand K000621706
    van Beusekom, C.F. [4642], Thailand K000682299
    Chantaranothai, P. [1451], Thailand K000682302
    Chantaranothai, P. [1451], Thailand K000682303
    Lace, J.H. [2716], Burma K000032477
    Bloembergen, S. [9], Thailand K000682300
    Bloembergen, S. [10], Thailand K000682301
    Hullett, R.W. [s.n.], Singapore K000290572
    Winit [1667], Thailand K000621697
    Winit [1669], Thailand K000621698
    Kerr, A.F.G. [1640], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000621707
    Kerr, A.F.G. [1640], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000621708
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3128], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000621709
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3128], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000621710
    Kerr, A.F.G. [s.n.], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000682292
    Sorensen, Th. [508], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000682290
    Hansen, B. [12518], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000682296
    Floto, F. [7712], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000682295
    Geesink [4971], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000682293
    Dee [504], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000682291
    Murton, H.F. [s.n.], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000682298
    Kloss [6637], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000682297
    Takawa, M. [T 3039], Thailand Thysanolaena maxima K000682294

    First published in J. Fac. Sci. Univ. Tokyo, Sect. 3, Bot. 3: 312 (1930)

    Accepted by

    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Snow, N. (2010). A key to Pacific Grasses: 1-107. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Robertson, S.A. (1989). Flowering Plants of Seychelles: 1-327. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cope, T.A. (1982). Flora of Pakistan 143: 1-678. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
    • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0