1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Blepharis Juss.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Africa to Tropical Asia.


    Acanthaceae (part 1), Kaj Vollesen, Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2008

    Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs or shrubs.
    Leaves in whorls of 4 (very rarely opposite), one pair smaller than the other, sessile or subsessile, margin revolute, apex often with a pungent mucro.
    Flowers in spiciform cymes with numerous flowers, each subtended by a single bract (Subgen. Acanthodium) or spike reduced to a single terminal flower (Subgen. Blepharis); cyme then solitary or several together in axils of ordinary leaves each supported by (3–)4(–5) pairs of decussate bracts (Sect. Blepharis) or clustered in heads surrounded by floral leaves differing in shape and texture from ordinary leaves and with varying numbers of irregularly arranged bracts (Sect. Scorpioideae); bracts coriaceous, usually toothed (inner glumaceous in Sect. Scorpioideae); bracteoles 2 or absent, usually linear to lanceolate.
    Calyx divided to base into 4 glumaceous sepals, included in bracts or ± exserted, basal 1–2 mm thickened and horny; dorsal sepal longer than the others, 3(–5)-veined and 1–3-toothed apically, ± lateral teeth; ventral sepal 2(–5)-veined, bifid (rarely entire); lateral sepals lanceolate to ovate, 1-veined.
    Corolla with tube narrow basally, constricted below the expanded thickened and spongy upper 1–3 mm, 1–2 mm below insertion with band of upwardly directed hairs; limb horizontal, split dorsally to give a 3–5-lobed lower lip, with a yellow thickened and spongy central callus which often terminates in 1–3 apical flanges, below puberulous to sericeous, above puberulous from sharply bent hairs (through 90°).
    Stamens 4, usually exserted (but hidden under dorsal sepal), inserted just inside tube on top of a thickened rim, two posterior held above anterior; filaments bony, posterior pair linear, curved, with knee at base, anterior pair slightly shorter, straight, broad and flattened, bifurcate at top into a short branch bearing the anther and an acute to obtuse ventral tooth-like appendage; anthers 1-thecous, elliptic to oblong, anterior pair slightly larger, fertile locule usually only 1/2–2/3 of total length (whole length in Subgen. Acanthodium), densely bearded and with large apical tufts of long hairs, usually glandular.
    Ovary glabrous, 2-locular with 2 ovules per locule; disk large, annular; style usually glabrous, with two tufts of short glandular hairs at base; stigma subentire or with two distinct lanceolate subacute lobes.
    Capsule 2(–4)-seeded, ovoid-ellipsoid, sessile, glossy, flattened dorsi-ventrally, central wall thick and woody.
    Seed discoid, covered with long white branched hygroscopic hairs.
    Range: A genus of 129 species in the Old World tropics and subtropics. Range: Especially numerous in eastern and southern Africa.



    Native to:

    Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf States, Hainan, India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Blepharis Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Gen. Pl.: 103 (1789)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.


    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 5: 94.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Vollesen, Blepharis: 30 (2000)
    • Ann. Transv. Mus. 19: 105 (1937)
    • F.T.A. 5: 94 (1899)
    • E. & P. Pf. IV, 3b: 316 (1895)
    • G.P. 2: 1089 (1876)
    • DC., Prodr. 11: 265 (1847)
    • Gen. Pl.: 103 (1789)


    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0