1. Family: Clusiaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Garcinia L.
      1. Garcinia livingstonei T.Anderson

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Comoros.

    [FZ]

    Guttiferae, N. K. B. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Glabrous shrub or tree, (3)4·5–12(18) m. high, ± pyramidal when young, later bushy; branches striate when young, later smooth, cylindric or somewhat triangular, spreading at first, becoming virgate.
    Leaves
    Leaves in whorls of 3 (rarely of 4 or opposite), coriaceous, petiolate; lamina 4–14 × 1·5–11 cm., very variable, lanceolate or oblanceolate to oblong or obovate (or rarely ± orbicular), emarginate or rounded to acute or apiculate at the apex, cuneate to rounded at the base, sometimes with shallowly crenate margin, dark to pale green above, pale green and ± glaucous below, with prominent reticulate venation on both sides, the main laterals variable in number, not always distinct from the secondary laterals, and with no visible secretory system; petiole 4–8 mm. long, channelled above, transversely wrinkled; ligule prominent.
    Flowers
    Flowers polygamous, in fascicles of 5–15 or more in the axils of the older leaves and on the old wood; pedicels 4–20 (35) mm. long, varying in thickness. Male flowers with numerous apparently free stamens inserted in a fleshy cushion formed by the united fasciclodes. Bisexual (and female?) flowers with fewer stamens (or staminodes?) inserted in a fleshy fasciclodal ring below the ovary; ovary globose, 2 (3)-locular, surmounted by a bilobed fleshy stigma.
    Calyx
    Sepals unequal, 4 in 2 opposite and decussate pairs, or 3, oblong to orbicular, cucullate.
    Corolla
    Petals 3–7 (9) mm. long, 1–11/2 times as long as the inner sepals, usually 5, but sometimes up to 8 (when they are linked with the sepals by transitional forms), obovate to orbicular, greenish-white to cream or pale yellow, with ± translucent, orange or reddish longitudinal glandular lines.
    Male
    Male flowers with numerous apparently free stamens inserted in a fleshy cushion formed by the united fasciclodes.
    Hermaphrodite
    Bisexual (and female?) flowers with fewer stamens (or staminodes?) inserted in a fleshy fasciclodal ring below the ovary; ovary globose, 2 (3)-locular, surmounted by a bilobed fleshy stigma.
    Fruits
    Berry 1–2·5 (3) cm. in diam., obovoid to globose, orange-yellow to reddish, 1–2 (3)-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds cylindric or ± plano-ovoid, 1·5–2 cm. long.
    [FWTA]

    Guttiferae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Shrub or branching tree to 50 ft. high
    Leaves
    Dark foliage
    Corolla
    Petals white
    Fruits
    Fruits yellow or red
    Ecology
    By streams and rivers in savannah country.
    [FTEA]

    Guttiferae, P. Bamps, N. Robson & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1978

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree (0.9–)3–18(–21) m. tall, usually of gnarled appearance, with dense mostly rounded crown, short twisted bole and long horizontal or pendulous branches; bark rough or ± smooth, usually slightly fissured, the slash mostly exuding a yellow or red resinous latex which may be almost lacking in specimens growing in rocky areas.
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly in whorls of 3 (rarely 4 or opposite); blades exceedingly variable in shape, lanceolate to oblanceolate to oblong or obovate or even ± round, 4–14(–17) cm. long, 1.5– 11.5 cm. wide, emarginate or rounded to acute or apiculate at the apex, cuneate to rounded at the base, mostly very coriaceous, entire to somewhat crenate, pale to dark green, ± glaucous beneath; venation prominent and reticulate on both surfaces; secretory canals not visible; petiole 4–8 mm. long, channelled above, transversely wrinkled, with ligule prominent.
    Flowers
    Flowers sweet-scented and very attractive to insects, polygamous, in crowded fascicles of 5–15 or more on the older mostly leafless parts of branchlets but sometimes in the axils of older leaves; pedicels red, 0.4–2(–3.5) cm. long, varying in thickness. Hermaphrodite and ♀ flowers with fewer stamens or staminodes inserted on a fleshy ring below the ovary; ovary globose, 2(–3)-locular; stigma greenish white, fleshy, adnate, 2-lobed. Male flowers with numerous apparently free stamens inserted in a fleshy subglobose cushion 5 mm. wide, made up of the united fasciclodes; filaments white, 2–2.5 mm. long; anthers yellow or reddish.
    Calyx
    Sepals green, unequal, 4, in 2 opposite and decussate pairs, or 3, oblong or ± round, (l–)2–5.5 mm. long (l–)3–6 mm. wide, cucullate.
    Corolla
    Petals 5(–8), green or creamy white to pale yellow, with translucent colourless margins and ± translucent orange or reddish longitudinal glandular lines, obovate, elliptic or rounded, 3–6(–11) mm. long, 3–6.5(–11) mm. wide.
    Male
    Male flowers with numerous apparently free stamens inserted in a fleshy subglobose cushion 5 mm. wide, made up of the united fasciclodes; filaments white, 2–2.5 mm. long; anthers yellow or reddish.
    Hermaphrodite
    Hermaphrodite and ♀ flowers with fewer stamens or staminodes inserted on a fleshy ring below the ovary; ovary globose, 2(–3)-locular; stigma greenish white, fleshy, adnate, 2-lobed.
    Fruits
    Fruit yellow, red or orange, sometimes pinkish tinged, plum-like, ovoid, ellipsoid, obovoid or globose, l–2.5(–4) cm. long, 1–3 cm. in diameter, sometimes compressed, edible.
    Seeds
    Seeds l–2(–3), oblong-ellipsoid, cylindric or plano-ovoid, 1.5–2.1 cm. long, 8–11 mm. in diameter or ± 8 mm. thick and ± 1.1 cm. wide.
    Figures
    Fig. 5.
    Habitat
    Woodland, thicket and grassland, nearly always riparian but also on rocky outcrops away from water and in open coastal forest of Parkia, Trachylobium, etc.; 0–1650 m.
    Distribution
    Guinée to Cameroun, South West Africa (Caprivi Strip) K1 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Comoros, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Senegal, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Queensland

    Common Names

    English
    African mangosteen, Lowveld mangosteen, Wild plum

    Garcinia livingstonei T.Anderson appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1952 Scott Elliot, G.F. [5338], Guinea K000452290
    Jan 1, 1952 Thomas, A.S. [28], Ghana K000452285
    Jan 1, 1952 Kitson, A. [815], Ghana K000452286
    Jan 1, 1952 Kitson, A. [871], Ghana K000452287
    Greenway, P.J. [10225], Tanzania 700.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [786], Uganda 15220.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [794], Uganda 21849.000
    Faulkner, H. [2093], Tanzania 16473.000
    Daramola, B.O. [38406], Nigeria K000452292
    Maitland, T.D. [719], Cameroon K000105213
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000240271
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000240272
    Erens, J. [239], Botswana K000282843
    Erens, J. [324], Botswana K000282844
    Vesey-Fitzgerald [7479], Tanzania 38613.000
    Welwitsch [5402], Angola K000240267
    Welwitsch [1047/48], Angola K000240268 isotype
    K000240270
    Espirito Santo, J. [3039], Guinea-Bissau K000452291
    Boudet, G. [7447], Mali K000452288
    Biegel, H. [3859], Botswana K000282846
    Biegel, H. [4081], Botswana K000282848
    Smith, P.A. [147], Botswana K000282845
    Hiemstra, H. [269], Botswana K000282842
    Chevalier, A.J.B. [20460], Guinea K000452289
    Barter [848], Nigeria Garcinia baikieana K000240156
    Stolz, A. [1642] Garcinia pallidinervia K000240099
    Stolz, A. [1642] Garcinia pallidinervia K000240100
    Stolz, A. [1642] Garcinia pallidinervia K000240101

    First published in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 9: 263 (1867)

    Accepted by

    • Cooper, W.E. (2013). A taxonomic revision of Garcinia L. (Clusiaceae) in Australia, including four new species from tropical Queensland Austrobaileya 9: 1-29.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Timberlake, J.R., Bayliss, J., Alves, T., Francisco, J., Harris, T., Nangoma, D. & de Sousa, C. (2009). Biodiversity and Conservation of Mchese Mountain, Malawi. Report produced under the Darwin Initiative Award 15/036: 1-71. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Bamps, P., Robson, N. & Verdcourt, B. (1978). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Guttiferae: 1-34.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. Soud.-Guin. 148, t. 24.
    • —F.T.A. 1: 165
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Cooper, W.E. (2013). A taxonomic revision of Garcinia L. (Clusiaceae) in Australia, including four new species from tropical Queensland Austrobaileya 9: 1-29.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Killick & Robson in Flora of Southern Africa 22: 21 (1976).
    • Bamps in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 39: 358 (1969)
    • Bamps in Distr. Pl. Afric. 1, map. 22 (1969).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 231 (1961).
    • Robson in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 400 (1961).
    • Keay, Onochie & Stanfield, Nigerian Trees 1: 182 (1960).
    • Pardy in Rhodes. Agric. Journ. 53: 958, fig. (1956).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 294 (1954).
    • Aubrév., Fl. For. Soud.-Guin.: 148, t. 24/3–4 (1950).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 241 (1949).
    • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 275 (1895).
    • Vesque in DC., Monogr. Phan. 8: 337 (1893).
    • Oliv., Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 165 (1868).
    • T. Anders. in Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Botany 9: 263 (1866).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/