1. Family: Gunneraceae Meisn.
    1. Genus: Gunnera L.
      1. Gunnera perpensa L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa, Madagascar.


    Haloragaceae, E. J. Mendes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Rhizomatous herb, up to 1 m. tall; rhizome ± elongated, usually creeping, up to 3 cm. thick, yellow-fleshed.
    Leaves robust, tufted near the apex of rhizome; leaf-lamina 4–13(25) x 6–17(38) cm., reniform to subcircular, palmately nerved, margin irregularly dentate with glandular teeth, cordate at the base, appressed-hairy on both surfaces, particularly so beneath and along the nerves when young, glabrescent with age; petiole 15–75 cm. long, stout, appressed-hairy to glabrescent.
    Spikes (0·5)2–7(10) cm. long, slender, sparsely hairy, solitary or fasciculate, remotely to densely disposed usually only along the upper 3/4 of scape, subtended by 4–10 mm. long triangular to linear and usually pubescent bracts; scapes usually solitary at the apex of rhizome, sparsely hairy or glabrescent, usually exceeding leaves.
    Flowers male, female and hermaphrodite, ebracteolate; calyx-tube urceolate; calyx-lobes minute, triangular; petals c. 2 mm. long, linear-spathulate, glabrous or hairy at apex, caducous, or absent; stamens with anthers up to 1·5 mm. long, broadly ellipsoid, dorsiventrally compressed, and filaments c. 0·4 mm. long, or absent; styles up to 1 mm. long, filiform, plumose from the base, divergent, or rudimentary or absent.
    Drupelets c. 1·4 mm. in diameter, subglobose, slightly laterally compressed and thus ± 2-crested, glabrous, crowned by the calyx-lobes, sessile or on pedicels up to 1 mm. long.

    Haloragaceae, R. Boutique (Jardin botanique national de Belgique) & B. Verdcourt (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Herb 15–100 cm. tall.
    Rhizome often deep red or yellow, up to about 2.2 cm. thick.
    Leaves with robust petiole 15–80 cm. long, sparsely pubescent to glabrous; limb reniform to almost round, broader than long, 4–15(–24) cm. long, 5.5–26.5(–30) cm. wide, cordate at the base, toothed, pubescent to quite densely almost scabrid-velvety hairy with stiff adpressed hairs particularly on the nerves and in the young state, becoming glabrescent.
    Spikes solitary or fasciculate, sparsely to densely arranged along an axis (15–)25–100(–150) cm. long of which the peduncle, often red at the base, comprises 2–35 cm.; spikes 0.2–13.5 cm. long, the basal ones the longest, many-flowered, sparsely pubescent to glabrous; bracts elliptic-lanceolate to linear, 4–8 mm. long, ± pubescent or glabrous.
    Flowers ♂, ♀ or hermaphrodite, pink or pale violet; calyx-tube green, 0.5–1.5 mm. long, lobes reddish, triangular, minute; petals reddish brown, ± linear-spathulate, 2–3.6 mm. long, glabrous or hairy at the apex, sometimes absent; anthers 1–1.9 mm. long; styles subulate, plumose, (0.4–)0.9–1.4 mm. long, or rudimentary or absent.
    Fruits sessile, subsessile or slightly pedicellate, globose, 1 mm. in diameter, glabrous, with bases of calyx-lobes and stamens persistent.
    Fig. 1.
    Swamps, damp ground, thick grass by streamsides, etc.; 1560–3800(–4000) m.
    K2 K3 K4 T2 T3 T7 T8 U2



    Native to:

    Burundi, Cape Provinces, Ethiopia, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Gunnera perpensa L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Baron, R. [2238], Madagascar K000350080
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [3962], Madagascar K000350081
    Fries, R.E. [2464], Kenya K000350079
    illegible, Ethiopia K000350078 Unknown type material

    First published in Mant. Pl. 1: 21 (1767)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.


    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Boutique, Fl. Congo, Haloragaceae: 2, t. 1 (1968).
    • Staner in Ann. Soc. Sci. Brux., sér. 2, 59: 138 (1939).
    • T.C.E. Fries in Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahelm 9: 36 (1924).
    • Schindler in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 225: 116 (1905).
    • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 297 (1895).
    • Harv. in Fl. Cap. 2: 571 (1862).
    • Sims, Bot. Mag. 50, t. 2376 (1823).
    • L. in Syst. Nat., ed. 12: 597 (1767).
    • L., Mant. Pl.: 121 (1767)


    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

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    Kew Backbone Distributions
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    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0