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  1. Family: Salicaceae Mirb.
    1. Dovyalis E.Mey. ex Arn.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Sri Lanka.

    [FZ]

    Flacourtiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Shrubs or trees, unarmed or spiny.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, simple, entire, denticulate or crenate, exstipulate.
    Flowers
    Flowers dioecious. Male flowers fasciculate or in short racemes; calyx (3) 4–7-lobed almost to the base, lobes valvate or almost so, variously pubescent or tomentose; petals 0; stamens 12–?, inserted on a sub-fleshy receptacle and alternating with minute, often pubescent glands. Female flowers often solitary in the axils or in fascicles of 2–4; calyx 4–8-lobed almost to the base, persistent and sometimes accrescent in fruit, sometimes bordered with stalked glands; petals 0; disk undulate or lobed or subentire; ovary sessile on the disk, 1–2-locular or occasionally imperfectly 2–8-locular with up to 8 placentas; each placenta with 1–6 ovules; styles 2–8, divergent.
    Fruits
    Fruit fleshy.
    Seeds
    Seeds few or occasionally up to about 12, glabrous or hairy.
    [FTEA]

    Flacourtiaceae, H. Sleumer (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975

    Habit
    Shrubs or trees, unarmed, or often with simple or compound spines on trunk and branches, and simple axillary spines on branchlets, dioecious or andromonoecious, i.e. the ♂ plant bearing occasionally a few bisexual flowers and fruits
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, sometimes fascicled on much reduced lateral shoots, generally persistent, rarely deciduous, entire, denticulate or crenate, exstipulate, petiolate, with 1 or 2 basal or suprabasal and a few upper spreading pairs of nerves, with fine pellucid points visible against strong light in a number of species
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish to yellowish, rarely white, solitary or in short racemes, these generally reduced to rather few-flowered fascicles; pedicels with small basal bracts Female flowers: calyx-lobes as many as (rarely –12) and similar to those of the ♂, often slightly larger, persistent and ± recurved in fruiting time. Staminodes rarely, stamens very rarely present. Ovary surrounded at the base by a cupular or annular disk (lobed according to the number of the calyx-lobes), unilocular or incompletely 2–4(–8, rarely more)-locular; placentas 2–4(–8, rarely more), each with 1 or 2(–6) ovules; styles 2–8(–20, rarely –40), divergent, channelled, stigmata ± lobed and papillose Male flowers: stamens 10–50(–80), inserted on a rather fleshy receptacle, with several irregularly arranged small disk-glands between; filaments filiform; anthers dorsifixed. Rudiment of ovary absent
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes (3–)4–6(–7, very rarely –9), free almost to the base, subimbricate to practically valvate, variously pubescent on both faces, sometimes set with sessile or stipitate marginal glands, sometimes accrescent in later stages
    Male
    Male flowers: stamens 10–50(–80), inserted on a rather fleshy receptacle, with several irregularly arranged small disk-glands between; filaments filiform; anthers dorsifixed. Rudiment of ovary absent
    Female
    Female flowers: calyx-lobes as many as (rarely –12) and similar to those of the ♂, often slightly larger, persistent and ± recurved in fruiting time. Staminodes rarely, stamens very rarely present. Ovary surrounded at the base by a cupular or annular disk (lobed according to the number of the calyx-lobes), unilocular or incompletely 2–4(–8, rarely more)-locular; placentas 2–4(–8, rarely more), each with 1 or 2(–6) ovules; styles 2–8(–20, rarely –40), divergent, channelled, stigmata ± lobed and papillose
    Fruits
    Fruit a fleshy berry
    Seeds
    Seeds few, or occasionally up to 12, ellipsoid, rather flattish, embedded in a pulp; testa coriaceous, glabrous, hairy, or sometimes woolly.
    [KBu]

    Williams EV. 2017. Dovyalis keniensis (Salicaceae), a new species from the coastal forests of Kenya. Kew Bulletin 72:51. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9723-4

    Note
    Taxon
    Table 1. Comparison of selected characters between Dovyalis keniensis, D. mollis and D. hispidula.
    Character D. keniensis D. mollis D. hispidula
    Distribution and altitude Kenya, 5 - 290 m Angola and DRC, 50 - 1,300 m Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique and Zimbabwe, 25 - 850 m
    Habitat Coastal forest Forest and mixed thicket Riverine thickets and Brachystegia woodland
    Spines length (cm) up to 5 up to 2.5 up to 4
    Leaf apex shape attenuate shortly acuminate obtuse, rounded or retuse
    Leaf size (cm) 1.5 - 6.6 x 1 - 2.5 6 - 11 x 2.4 - 4.5 0.8 - 3.5 x 0.6 - 2.3
    Petioles length (mm) 1-5 3-4 3-8
    Male flower pedicel length (mm) 4-7 3-5 2- 3(- 6)
    Male flower hairs yellow tomentose yellow tomentose white hispid hairs
    Male flower tepal length (mm) 1.5 - 2 3 2
    Female flowers hairs yellow tomentose yellow tomentose glabrescent
    Ovary hairs yellow tomentose yellow? tomentose sparsely hispid to glabrous
    Style number 2, occasionally 3 3-4 2-3
    Fruit velvety hairy laxly hairy glabrous

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Hawaii, New Caledonia, Puerto Rico, St.Helena

    Accepted Species

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Dovyalis E.Mey. ex Arn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Milne-Redhead, E. [9124], Tanzania 38463.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [586], Uganda 16465.000
    Harris, D.J. [1400], Central African Republic 63740.000
    Letouzey, R. [15029], Cameroon K000106140
    64652.000

    Bibliography

    First published in J. Bot. (Hooker) 3: 251 (1841)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
    • Killick, D.J.B. (1976). Flacourtiaceae (including Samydaceae) Flora of Southern Africa 22: 53-92. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin

    • BirdLife International (2016). Important Bird and Biodiversity Area factsheets. Downloaded from www.birdlife.org on30/09/2016.
    • BirdLife International (2013). Biodiversity Status and Trends Report for the Eastern Arc Mountains and Coastal Forests of Kenya and Tanzania region, 2012. BirdLife International — Africa Partnership Secretariat, Nairobi, Kenya.
    • IUCN (2012). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1, Second Edition IUCN, Gland and Cambridge. Mittermeier, R. A., Robles Gil, P., Hoffman, M.,
    • Bachman, S., Moat, J., Hill, A. W., de la Torre, J. & Scott, B. (2011). Supporting Red List threat assess­ments with GeoCAT: geospatial conservation assess­ment tool. ZooKeys 150: 117 - 126.
    • Cheek, M. & Ngolan, R. (2006). A reassessment of the Dovyalis spinosissima (Flacourtiacae — Salicaceae) complex in Africa, with a new species from Cameroon. Kew Bull. 61: 595 - 600.
    • Pilgrim, J., Brooks, T., Mittermeier, C. G., Lamoreux, J. & Da Fonsca, G. A. B. (2005). Hotspots Revisited: Earth's Biologically Richest and Most Endan­gered Terrestrial Ecoregions. Conservation Internation­al, Washington D.C.
    • Chase, M.W., Zmarzty,S., Lledo, M. D., Wurdack, K. J., Swenson, S. M. & Fay, M. F. (2002). When in doubt put it in Flacourtiaceae: a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on rbcL DNA sequences. Kew Bull. 57: 141 - 181.
    • Beentje, H. (1994). Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya.
    • Sleumer, H. (1975). Flacourtiaceae. In: R. Polhill (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Published on behalf of the East African community by the Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London.
    • Sleumer, H. (1972). A taxonomic revision ofthe genus Dovyalis E. Mey. ex Arn. (Flacourtiaceae). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 92: 64 - 89.

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Gilg in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 40: 504 (1908).
    • in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3: 251 (1841)

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • in Hook., Journ. Bot. 3: 251 (1841).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Sleumer in E.J. 92: 64 (1972)
    • Gilg in E. & P. Pf., ed. 2, 21: 440 (1925)
    • in Hook., Journ. Bot. 3: 251 (1841)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0