1. Family: Iridaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Gladiolus Tourn. ex L.
      1. Gladiolus atropurpureus Baker

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Iridaceae, Peter Goldblatt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Plants 30-60 cm. high.
    Corms
    Corm (1-)1.5-2(-3) cm. in diameter, tunics fibrous pale straw-coloured, fibres mostly vertical and often thickened and claw-like below.
    Leaves
    Foliage leaves (of the flowering stem) 3-4(-5), entirely sheathing or with blades to 5(-10) cm. long, imbricate, narrowly lanceolate to linear, the margins and midribs hyaline and usually lightly thickened (foliage leaves on separate shoots not produced); leaves of non-flowering plants solitary, linear, 15-20 cm. long, 4-6(-12) mm. wide, usually with lightly thickened margins.
    Stem
    Stem erect, unbranched (rarely branched), usually lightly flexed above the sheath of the upper leaf.
    Inflorescences
    Spike (3-)5-10(-15)-flowered, lightly flexuose, inclined; bracts 1-1.5(-2) cm. long, green, rather soft-textured, the margins often membranous, attenuate, the inner somewhat shorter to nearly as long as the outer.
    Flowers
    Flowers either cream to light purple with the dorsal tepals flushed light to deep purple, the lower laterals each with a deep purple spade-shaped mark in the distal third, surrounded by a lighter area or partly to entirely dark purple, sometimes with pale markings on the lower tepals; perianth-tube 1-1.2 cm. long, curving outward between the bracts, widening near the mouth; tepals unequal, the dorsal 15-20 × 9-12 mm., largest, arching over the stamens, the upper laterals smaller, directed forwards, curving outward distally, the 3 lower joined with the upper laterals for ± 5 mm., horizontal to down-curved, usually exceeding the dorsal in profile, (10-)12-15 × 6-9 mm., narrowed below into claws, the limbs abruptly expanded.
    Stamens
    Filaments 6-8 mm. long, exserted ± 4 mm.; anthers 5-8 mm. long.
    Style
    Style dividing opposite the upper half of the anthers, the branches 2-2.5 mm. long., usually reaching nearly to the apices of the anthers, rarely exceeding them.
    Fruits
    Capsules ovoid to ellipsoid, (1-)1.2-1.8 cm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 13/4-5.
    Habitat
    Light woodland or low montane grassland, sometimes in rocky soils and rock outcrops; mainly 950-2600 m.; flowering at the beginning of the wet season, November-December, sometimes even before soaking rains have fallen, setting fruit in late December and January and then dormant through the wet months of February to April
    Distribution
    T1 T4 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Iridaceae, P. Goldblatt. Flora Zambesiaca 12:4. 1993

    Habit
    Plants 30–60 cm high.
    Corms
    Corms (10)15–20(30) mm in diameter; tunics fibrous, pale straw-coloured, fibres mostly vertical and often thickened and claw-like below.
    Leaves
    Foliage leaves of the flowering stem 3–4(5), entirely sheathing or with blades to 5(10) cm long, imbricate, narrowly lanceolate to linear, the margins and midribs hyaline and usually slightly thickened (hysteranthous foliage leaves on separate shoots are not produced); leaves of non-flowering plants solitary, 15–20 cm long, 4–6(12) mm wide, linear, usually with slightly thickened margins.
    Stem
    Stem erect, unbranched (rarely branched), usually slightly flexed above the sheath of the upper leaf.
    Inflorescences
    Spike (3)5–10(15)-flowered, slightly flexuous, inclined; bracts green, 10–15(20) mm long, attenuate, rather soft-textured, the margins often membranous, the inner bracts somewhat shorter to nearly as long as the outer.
    Flowers
    Flowers cream-coloured to light-purple with the upper tepals flushed light- to deep-purple, the lower lateral tepals each with a deep-purple spade-shaped mark in the distal third surrounded by a lighter area or partly to entirely dark-purple, sometimes with pale markings on the lower tepals; perianth tube 10–12 mm long, curving outward between the bracts, widening near the mouth; tepals unequal, the uppermost 15–20 × 9–12 mm, larger than the others and arching over the stamens, the upper lateral tepals smaller directed forwards and curving outwards distally, the 3 lower tepals (10)12–15 × 6–9 mm and horizontal to down-curved, joined with the upper laterals for c. 5 mm and usually exceeding the uppermost when viewed in profile, narrowed below into claws, the limbs abruptly expanded.
    Stamens
    Filaments 6–8 mm long, exserted c. 4 mm; anthers 5–8 mm long.
    Style
    Style dividing opposite the upper half of the anthers, style branches 2–2.5 mm long, usually reaching nearly to the apices of the anthers, rarely exceeding them.
    Fruits
    Capsules (10)12–18 mm long, ovoid to ellipsoid.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Gladiolus atropurpureus Baker appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Kirk [s.n.], Mozambique K000320791 Unknown type material
    Schaijes, M. [2736A], Congo, DRC 50426.000
    Welwitsch [1537], Angola K000320798 isolectotype
    Welwitsch [1533], Angola K000320799 isolectotype
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K000320788 syntype
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K000320789 lectotype
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K000320790 syntype
    Carson, A. [79], Zambia K000320797 holotype
    Cecil, E. [50], Zimbabwe K000320793
    Waller? [s.n.], Zambia K000320795
    Kirk, T. [s.n.], Mozambique K000320792 lectotype
    Kirk, T. [s.n.], Mozambique K000320794 Unknown type material
    Mphamba, S. [38], Mozambique K000613735
    Bone, R.E. [347], Zambia 78362.000

    First published in J. Bot. 14: 335 (1876)

    Accepted by

    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Geerinck, D (2005). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi) Iridaceae: 1-102. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Geerinck in Gladiolus Trop. Afr.: 126 (1996).
    • Goldblatt in Flora Zambesiaca 12(4): 80 (1993)
    • Geerinck in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 42: 271 (1972), excl. syn. G. unguiculatus
    • Baker in Flora of Tropical Africa 7: 364 (1898).
    • Baker in Journal of Botany 14: 335 (1876)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0