1. Family: Iridaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Gladiolus Tourn. ex L.
      1. Gladiolus crassifolius Baker

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Iridaceae, P. Goldblatt. Flora Zambesiaca 12:4. 1993

    Habit
    Plants (25)40–90(120) cm high, sometimes with up to 5 stems per corm.
    Corms
    Corms 2–3 cm in diameter; tunics coriaceous to coarsely fibrous.
    Leaves
    Foliage leaves 4–8, either few and emergent at flowering time, then the stem bearing only 1–2 cauline and sheathing leaves and 2 laminate basal leaves, or with several basal laminate leaves and 2–3 cauline leaves, these with progressively shorter blades and the upper sometimes entirely sheathing; blades narrowly lanceolate to linear, exceeding the spike in short-stemmed plants, or reaching to about the base of the spike in tall plants, 5–12 mm wide, the midrib and margins hyaline and moderately thickened.
    Stem
    Stem simple or 1–3(5)-branched.
    Inflorescences
    Spike with the main axis (6)12–22-flowered, the branches with fewer flowers; bracts 12–18 mm long, usually pale-green or flushed purple, soft-textured initially, becoming dry and membranous above (in fruit often translucent light red-brown), more or less obtuse to subacute, usually apiculate, the inner slightly shorter than the outer and 2-apiculate.
    Flowers
    Flowers pale to deep-pink or purple, the lower lateral and sometimes the lowermost tepals each with a dark band of colour across the lower half of the limbs, sometimes the dark band edged with cream; perianth tube c. 8 mm long, curved and funnel-shaped, cylindric below, widening and curving outward in upper part; tepals unequal, the uppermost 20–22 × c. 8 mm (often less when dry), larger than the others and arched over the stamens, the upper lateral tepals 18–22 mm long, directed forward and curving outward in the upper half, the lower 3 more or less straight and directed downward, united basally for 2–3 mm, the lateral tepals 12–15 mm, and the lowermost 16–20 mm long.
    Stamens
    Filaments c. 12 mm long, exserted for 6 mm; anthers 7–8 mm long.
    Style
    Style usually dividing opposite the lower half of the anthers; style branches c. 2 mm long, seldom extending past the middle of the anthers.
    Fruits
    Capsules 9–12(14) mm long, obovoid.
    [FTEA]

    Iridaceae, Peter Goldblatt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Plants 40-90(-120) cm. high, sometimes with up to 5 stems per corm.
    Corms
    Corm 2-3 cm. in diameter, tunics coriaceous to coarsely fibrous.
    Leaves
    Foliage leaves 4-8, either few and emergent at flowering time, then the stem bearing only 1-2 cauline and sheathing leaves and 2 laminate basal leaves, or with several basal laminate leaves and 2-3 cauline leaves, these with progressively shorter blades and the upper sometimes entirely sheathing, blades narrowly lanceolate to linear, exceeding the spike in short-stemmed plants, or reaching to ± the base of the spike in tall, 5-12 mm. wide, the midrib and margins hyaline and moderately thickened.
    Stem
    Stem simple or 1-3(-5) branched.
    Inflorescences
    Spike with the main axis (6-)12-22-flowered, the branches with fewer flowers; bracts 12-18 mm. long, usually pale green or flushed purple, soft-textured initially, becoming dry and membranous above (in fruit often translucent light red-brown), ± obtuse to subacute, usually apiculate, the inner slightly shorter than the outer and 2-apiculate.
    Flowers
    Flowers pale to deep pink or purple, the lower lateral and sometimes the lowermost tepals each with a dark band of colour across the lower half of the limbs, sometimes the dark band edged with cream; perianth-tube curved and funnel-shaped, cylindric below, widening and curving outward above, ± 8 mm. long; tepals unequal, the dorsal 2-2.2 cm. long, ± 8 mm. wide, (often less when dry), largest, arched over the stamens, the upper laterals 1.8-2.2 cm. long, directed forward and curving outward in the upper half, the lower 3 ± straight and directed downward, united basally for 2-3 mm., narrowed into channelled claws below, the laterals 1.2-1.5 cm., the lowermost 1.6-2 cm. long.
    Stamens
    Filaments ± 1.2 cm. long, exserted for 6 mm.; anthers 7-8 mm. long.
    Style
    Style usually dividing opposite the lower half of the anthers, the branches ± 2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsules obovoid, 9-12(-14) mm. long.
    Habitat
    Open grassland, sometimes in rocky situations, in both well-watered and relatively dry sites; usually above 1800 m. (coastal in South Africa and Mozambique); flowering April to June
    Distribution
    T7

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Cape Provinces, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zimbabwe

    Gladiolus crassifolius Baker appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1992 Thomson [s.n.], Tanzania K000320743 holotype
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K000320774 lectotype
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Malawi K000320775 isolectotype
    Cooper, T. [3185], South Africa K000320897 lectotype
    Kuntze, O. [s.n.], South Africa K000320898 Unknown type material
    Swynnerton [779], Zimbabwe K000320776 isolectotype
    Dieterlin, A. [445], South Africa K000320899 Unknown type material
    Dieterlin, A. [445], South Africa K000320900 Unknown type material
    Dieterlin, A. [445], South Africa K000320901 Unknown type material
    Harris, T. [284], Mozambique K000613359
    Scott Elliot, G.F. [1588], South Africa Gladiolus paludosus K000321058 holotype

    First published in J. Bot. 14: 334 (1876)

    Accepted by

    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Goldblatt in Gladiolus Trop. Afr.: 94 (1996).
    • Goldblatt in Flora Zambesiaca 12(4): 68 (1993)
    • G.J. Lewis et al. in Journ. S. Afr. Bot., Suppl. 10: 60 (1972).
    • Baker in Fl. Cap. 6: 150 (1896).
    • Baker in Journal of Botany 14: 334 (1876)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0