1. Family: Iridaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Gladiolus Tourn. ex L.
      1. Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar, SW. Arabian Peninsula.

    [FZ]

    Iridaceae, P. Goldblatt. Flora Zambesiaca 12:4. 1993

    Habit
    Plants (50)70–120(150) cm high.
    Corms
    Corms (15)20–30 mm in diameter; tunics reddish-brown, of brittle or coriaceous to membranous layers, the outer becoming irregularly broken, sometimes fibrous; numerous tiny cormlets usually present around the base.
    Leaves
    Foliage leaves either synanthus and produced simultaneously with the flowers on the flowering shoot (subsp. dalenii) or hysteranthus and produced after flowering on separate shoots from the same corm (subsp. andongensis); synanthus foliage leaves 4–6(7), at least the lower 2 basal or nearly so, long-laminate and about half as long as the spike, (5)10–20(30) mm wide, narrowly lanceolate to nearly linear, firm textured with moderately raised thickened midribs and margins, the upper 1–2 leaves (of plants with synanthous leaves) cauline and sheathing for at least half their length, sometimes entirely sheathing, often imbricate; hysteranthus foliage leaves usually only 2 and resembling basal synanthus foliage leaves, flowering stem leaves (of plants with hysteranthus leaves) entirely sheathing or with blades up to 6 cm long.
    Stem
    Stem unbranched.
    Inflorescences
    Spike (2)3–7(14)-flowered, erect; bracts green, sometimes dry and pale apically, (2.5)4–7 cm long, the inner slightly shorter than the outer.
    Flowers
    Flowers either red to orange with a yellow mark on each of the 3 lower tepals, or flowers yellow to greenish and often with red to brown streaks on the upper tepals; perianth tube (25)35–45 mm long, nearly cylindric and curving outward in the upper half; tepals unequal, the 3 upper tepals 35–50 × 22–30 mm and broadly elliptic-obovate, the uppermost larger than the others and horizontal to down-curved concealing the stamens, the upper lateral tepals about as long as, to c. 5 mm shorter than, the uppermost, 20–30 mm wide and directed forwards often curving outward distally, the lower 3 tepals 20–25(30) × 8–12 mm and curving downwards, the lowermost somewhat longer and narrower than the lower lateral tepals.
    Stamens
    Filaments c. 25 mm long, exserted 15–18 mm; anthers 12–16 mm long, pale-yellow.
    Style
    Style dividing near or beyond the anther apices, style branches (4)5–6 mm long.
    Fruits
    Capsules (18)25–35 mm long, ellipsoid to ovoid.
    [FTEA]

    Iridaceae, Peter Goldblatt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Plants (50-)70-120(-200) cm. high.
    Corms
    Corm (1.5-)2-3 cm. in diameter, tunics of brittle, coriaceous to membranous layers, the outer becoming irregularly broken, sometimes fibrous, reddish brown, usually bearing numerous tiny cormlets around the base.
    Leaves
    Foliage leaves either contemporary with the flowers (subsp dalenii ) or produced after flowering (subsp andongensis ), then foliage leaves produced on separate shoots after flowering.
    Stem
    Stem unbranched.
    Inflorescences
    Spike erect, (2-)4-7(-14)-flowered; bracts green, sometimes dry and pale apically, (2.5-)4-7 cm. long, the inner slightly shorter than the outer.
    Flowers
    Flowers either red to orange with a yellow mark on each of the 3 lower tepals or yellow to greenish and often with red to brown streaks on the dorsal tepals; perianth-tube (2.5-)3.5-4.5 cm. long, nearly cylindric and curving outward above; tepals unequal, the 3 upper broadly elliptic-obovate, the dorsal 3.5-5.5 × 2.2-3.5 cm., largest, horizontal to down-curved and concealing the stamens, the upper laterals ± as long to ± 5 mm. shorter than the dorsal, 2-3 cm. wide, directed forwards, often curving outward distally, the lower 3 tepals 20-25(-30) × 8-12 mm., curving downwards, the lowermost somewhat longer and narrower than the lower laterals.
    Stamens
    Filaments ± 2.5 cm. long, exserted 1.5-1.8 cm.; anthers 1.2-1.6 cm. long, pale yellow.
    Style
    Style dividing near or beyond the anther-apices, branches (4-)5-6 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsules ± obovoid, (1.8-)2.5-3.5 cm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 16/1-2.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Peru

    Gladiolus dalenii Van Geel appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Flanagan, H.G. [s.n.], South Africa K000320885 holotype
    Flanagan, H.G. [s.n.], South Africa K000320886 Unknown type material
    Tyson, W. [1653], South Africa K000320884 holotype
    Adlam, R.W. [s.n.], South Africa K000320883 holotype
    Cooper, T. [3593], South Africa K000320881 isotype
    Cooper, T. [3593], South Africa K000320882 holotype
    Dyck, S.? [s.n.], South Africa K000320880 holotype
    Collector unknown [NBG 1361/30.], South Africa K000320887 isotype
    Neethling, comm. Grosskopf. [586], South Africa K000320888 isotype

    First published in Sert. Bot. 2(1): 18 (1829)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
    • Demissew, S. & Nordal, I. (2010). Aloes and other Lilies of Ethiopia and Eritrea, ed, 2: 1-351. Shama Books, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Geerinck, D (2005). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi) Iridaceae: 1-102. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Not accepted by

    • Innes, C. (1985). The World of Iridaceae: 1-407. Holly Gare International Ltd., Ashington. [Cited as Gladiolus natalensis.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2002). Flora of North America North of Mexico 26: 1-723. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. in Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru: 573-576. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Andrews, F.W. (1956). The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: i-viii, 1-579. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Goldblatt in Gladiolus Trop. Afr.: 207 (1996).
    • Goldblatt in Flora Zambesiaca 12(4): 89 (1993)
    • Goldblatt in Fl. Madag. 45, ed. 2: 42 (1991)
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 428, fig. 436 (1987).
    • Cribb & Leedal, Mountain Fl. S. Tanz.: 177, t. 50B (1982).
    • Hilliard & Burtt in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edin. 37: 297 (1979).
    • Van Geel, Sert. Bot., fasc. 28 (1829).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0