1. Family: Iridaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Gladiolus Tourn. ex L.
      1. Gladiolus gregarius Welw. ex Baker

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Iridaceae, Peter Goldblatt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Plants (15-)30-80 cm. high.
    Corms
    Corms (1.2-)1.8-3(-4) cm. in diameter, tunics membranous, fragmenting irregularly, occasionally subfibrous, the fibres then somewhat clawed.
    Leaves
    Foliage leaves 4-7, the lower 3-5 ± basal, 1/2-2/3 as long as the stem, narrowly lanceolate, (6-)9-16(-24) mm. wide, the margins and midribs not or hardly thickened, upper leaves cauline and shorter.
    Stem
    Stem erect and straight, unbranched.
    Inflorescences
    Spike (2-)8-20(-25)-flowered, erect, often congested, evidently straight but flexuose under the bracts; bracts 2-3(-5) cm. long, 8-10 mm. at the widest, green or becoming dry and brown at the end of flowering, firm, sometimes lightly striate (the veins raised and hyaline), imbricate, 2-2.5(-3) internodes long, the inner ± 2/3 as long as the outer.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually light to dark purple (to dark reddish brown) fading to cream in the throat or mostly white, the tube usually dark purple below, the lower tepals each with a dark purple diamond-shaped mark in the distal third; perianth-tube ± 1.2 cm. long, curving outward and widening above; tepals unequal, the dorsal (1.6-)2.2-2.6 × 1.2-1.8 cm., arched over the stamens, the lower 3 narrowed below into claws, the limbs flexed downward and channelled, joined to the upper laterals for 4-6 mm. and to one another for ± 2 mm., ± 12 × 5 mm., usually shortly exceeding the dorsal in profile.
    Stamens
    Filaments 9-13 mm. long, exserted 5-6 mm.; anthers 7-10 mm. long.
    Style
    Style dividing opposite the lower half of the anthers, branches ± 2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsules 1.2-1.5 cm. long, narrowly ellipsoid, fairly hard, ± woody.
    Figures
    Fig. 14/3-5.
    Habitat
    Occurring in open woodland, often in rocky habitats where it is sheltered from competition, occasionally reported from wetter sites such as edges of seasonally flooded valley grassland; 1000-2300 m.; flowering (November-)January to March
    Distribution
    T1 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1 widespread in tropical Africa, from Senegal to southern Zambia
    [FZ]

    Iridaceae, P. Goldblatt. Flora Zambesiaca 12:4. 1993

    Habit
    Plants (15)30–80 cm high.
    Corms
    Corms (12)18–30(40) mm in diameter; tunics membranous, fragmenting irregularly, occasionally subfibrous and the fibres then somewhat clawed.
    Leaves
    Foliage leaves 4–7, the lower 3–5 more or less basal, half to two thirds as long as the stem and (6)9–16(24) mm wide, narrowly lanceolate, the margins and midribs not or hardly thickened; upper leaves cauline and shorter.
    Stem
    Stem erect and straight, unbranched.
    Inflorescences
    Spike (2)8–20(25)-flowered, erect, often congested, evidently straight but flexuous under the bracts; bracts 20–30(50) × 8–10 mm at the widest, green or becoming dry and brown at the end of flowering, firm, sometimes slightly striate (the veins raised and hyaline), imbricate, 2–2.5(3) internodes long, the inner c. two-thirds as long as the outer.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually light-to dark-purple (dark-reddish brown) fading to cream-coloured in the throat or mostly white, the tube usually dark-purple below, the lower tepals each with a dark-purple diamond-shaped mark in the distal third; perianth tube c. 12 mm long, curving outward and widening above; tepals unequal, the uppermost (16)22–26 × 12–18 mm, arched over the stamens, the lower 3 tepals c. 12 × c. 5 mm, usually shortly exceeding the uppermost when viewed in profile, narrowed below into claws, the limbs flexed downward and channelled, joined to the upper lateral tepals for 4–6 mm and to one another for c. 2 mm.
    Stamens
    Filaments 9–13 mm long, exserted 5–6 mm; anthers 7–10 mm long.
    Style
    Style dividing opposite the lower half of the anthers, style branches c. 2 mm long.
    Fruits
    Capsules 12–15 mm long, narrowly ellipsoid, fairly hard and woody.
    [FWTA]

    Iridaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    A slender herb with very narrow leaves
    Flowers
    Flowers purple or white with purple throat.
    [FWTA]

    Iridaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

    Habit
    Erect herb 2-4 ft. high
    Flowers
    Numerous reddish purple flowers in a long narrow spike
    Ecology
    In seasonally moist savanna.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

    Gladiolus gregarius Welw. ex Baker appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [9752], Cameroon K000746734
    Jan 1, 1972 Geerling, C. [1179], Burkina Faso K000385957
    Milne-Redhead, E. [3978], Angola 38390.000
    Richards, Zambia 19039.000
    Jaeger, P. [5140], Mali K000385959
    Welwitsch [1538], Angola K000320801 isolectotype
    Welwitsch [1528], Angola K000320802 isolectotype
    Barter, C. [s.n.], Nigeria K000320720 Unknown type material
    Hannington, J. [s.n.], Tanzania K000320747 holotype
    Hannington, J. [s.n.], Tanzania K000320748 holotype
    Sihronen, J. [221], Burkina Faso K000385958
    Milne-Redhead, E. [9175], Tanzania Gladiolus hanningtonii 24408.000
    Bullock, A.A. [3735], Zambia Gladiolus multiflorus 22412.000
    Bullock, A.A. [2330], Tanzania Gladiolus multiflorus 22413.000

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 1: 268 (1878)

    Accepted by

    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Geerinck, D (2005). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi) Iridaceae: 1-102. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Hopper in Kew Bull. 21: 493 (1968).
    • F.T.A. 7: 365
    • in Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, 1: 268 (1878)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Geerinck, D (2005). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi) Iridaceae: 1-102. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Goldblatt in Gladiolus Trop. Afr.: 140 (1996).
    • Goldblatt in Flora Zambesiaca 12(4): 79 (1993)
    • Geerinck in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 42: 276 (1972).
    • Hepper in Kew Bulletin 21: 493 (1968)
    • Hepper, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 144 (1968).
    • Baker in Flora of Tropical Africa 7: 365 (1898).
    • Baker in Trans. Linn. Soc., ser. 2, 1: 268 (1878)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0