1. Family: Iridaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Gladiolus Tourn. ex L.
      1. Gladiolus laxiflorus Baker

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Iridaceae, Peter Goldblatt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1996

    Habit
    Plants (20-)40-70 cm. high.
    Corms
    Corm 2.5-3 cm. in diameter, depressed-globose, usually persisting for some years, usually dark red, the tunics coriaceous to somewhat membranous, fragmenting irregularly.
    Leaves
    Leaves (of the flowering stem) 3-6, the lower 2-4 basal and laminate, the blades sometimes very short, linear to narrowly lanceolate or falcate, 4-6 mm. wide, often emergent and short at the beginning of flowering, ultimately the longest to 35 cm., usually lightly pubescent, especially on the sheaths, the margins and midribs moderately thickened, the upper 1-3 leaves largely to entirely sheathing and glabrous; longer leaves sometimes produced after flowering from separate shoots.
    Stem
    Stem often 1-2 branched, occasionally simple, sometimes more than 1 stem produced from the same corm, the branching often subdivaricate but the main axis always thicker, ± 4 mm. in diameter at the base of the spike.
    Inflorescences
    Spike 6-9(-16)-flowered, the lateral spikes with fewer flowers; bracts herbaceous below, becoming ± membranous above or dry at anthesis, 1-1.5(-2) cm. long, the inner usually slightly longer than the outer.
    Flowers
    Flowers purple to pinkish, without markings or with 1 or all of the lower tepals with a small yellow mark in the distal half; perianth-tube expanding gradually from base to apex, curving outward above, 1-1.7 cm. long; tepals nearly equal or unequal with the upper 3 larger than the lower, the upper 3 ascending, the lower descending, lanceolate, narrowed below, 3-3.5 cm. long, 1.3-1.5 cm. at the widest (poorly pressed flowers may shrink up to 50% of their original size).
    Stamens
    Filaments ± 2 cm. long, exserted 1.2-1.5 cm. from the tube; anthers 6-8 mm. long.
    Style
    Style dividing beyond the anther-apices, the branches ± 3 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsules 1.5-2.2 cm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 12/3-4.
    Habitat
    Wet habitats such as marshes, seasonally flooded valley grassland and stream banks; 1350-2300 m.; flowering toward the end of the dry season, August to October, or at the beginning of the wet season, November and December when the surrounding vegetation is fairly short and the flowers are visible above the low ground cover
    Distribution
    T4 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Iridaceae, P. Goldblatt. Flora Zambesiaca 12:4. 1993

    Habit
    Plants (20)40–70 cm high.
    Corms
    Corms 25–30 mm in diameter, depressed-globose, usually persisting for some years, usually dark-red; tunics coriaceous to somewhat membranous, fragmenting irregularly.
    Leaves
    Foliage leaves 3–, the lower 2–4 basal and laminate, the blades beginning to emerge around flowering time, ultimately the largest up to 35 cm long, 4–6 mm wide, linear to narrowly lanceolate or falcate, the margins and midribs moderately thickened, usually lightly pubescent, especially on the sheaths; the upper 1–3 leaves mostly to entirely sheathing, glabrous.
    Stem
    Stems often 1–2-branched, occasionally simple.
    Inflorescences
    Spike 6–9-flowered, the lateral spikes with fewer flowers, inclined; bracts 10–15(20) mm long, green below, becoming more or less membranous above or dry at anthesis, the inner usually slightly longer than the outer.
    Flowers
    Flowers purple to pinkish, without markings, or 1 or all of the lower tepals with a small yellow mark in the distal half; perianth tube c. 10 mm long, expanding gradually from base to apex, curving outward above; tepals subequal to unequal with the upper 3 larger than the lower ones, 30–35 × 13–15 mm at the widest (poorly pressed flowers may shrink by up to 50 per cent of their original size), lanceolate, narrowed below, the upper 3 ascending, the lower directed downward.
    Stamens
    Filaments 18–20 mm long; exserted for 12–14 mm; anthers 7–8 mm long.
    Style
    Style dividing beyond the anther apices, style branches c. 3 mm long.
    Fruits
    Capsules 15–22 mm long, ellipsoid-obovoid.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre

    Gladiolus laxiflorus Baker appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2012 Congdon, T.C.E. [759], Tanzania K000823893
    Jan 1, 1983 Schlieben, H.J. [1136], Tanzania K000320745 isotype
    Watermeyer, A.M. [206], Tanzania 18182.000
    Welwitsch [1536], Angola K000320782 isolectotype
    Carson, A. [37], Zambia K000320781 holotype
    Antunes [326], Angola K000320780 Unknown type material

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 1: 268 (1878)

    Accepted by

    • Geerinck, D (2005). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaïre - Rwanda - Burundi) Iridaceae: 1-102. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Meise.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Goldblatt in Gladiolus Trop. Afr.: 115 (1996).
    • Goldblatt in Flora Zambesiaca 12(4): 75 (1993)
    • Cribb & Leedal, Mountain Fl. S. Tanz.: 177, t. 50C (1982).
    • Geerinck in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 42: 279 (1972)
    • Wild in Fl. Pl. Afr. 33: t. 1287 (1959).
    • Baker in Flora of Tropical Africa 7: 362 (1898).
    • Baker in Trans. Linn. Soc., ser. 2, 1: 268 (1878)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0