1. Family: Juncaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Juncus L.
      1. Juncus effusus L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Northern Hemisphere to W. South America, Rwanda to S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean.

    [FTEA]

    Juncaceae, Susan Carter. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1966

    Habit
    Perennial densely tufted erect herb to 120 cm. high.
    Rhizomes
    Rhizome short, internodes scarcely 5 mm. long.
    Stem
    Stems to 5 mm. in diameter, leafless, green, finely striated, the sterile ones sharply pointed.
    Leaves
    Leaves reduced to 3–6 cataphylls, 1–20 cm. long, straw-coloured to dark purple-brown, with the longer inner 1 or 2 bearing a reduced filiform cylindric deciduous leaf-blade up to 1 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence pseudolateral, many-branched, consisting of 1- and 2-sided cymes, dense or lax, 1.5–8 cm. in diameter, subtended by a cylindric sharply pointed bract up to 30 cm. long, which resembles a continuation of the stem; branches many, from a few mm. up to 5 cm. long, each with a scarious lanceolate bract 2–5 mm. long at its base; flowers on slender 0.5–5 cm. long pedicels; each flower subtended by a bract and 2 bracteoles; bracts triangular, 1–1.5 mm. long, acute, membranous, buff-coloured; bracteoles similar, 1 mm. long.
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments lanceolate, subulate at their apices, green with colourless to brown membranous margins; outer segments 1.75–2.5 mm. long, 0.5 mm. wide; inner segments slightly shorter.
    Stamens
    Stamens 3; filaments linear, 0.5 mm. long; anthers linear, 0.4– 0.5 mm. long.
    Pistil
    Ovary 3-locular; style very short; stigmas 0.75 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule trigonous, obovoid, 2–2.5 mm. long, shortly apiculate, apex slightly depressed at maturity, shiny, olive to red-brown.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, about 0.4 mm. long, very shortly apiculate, faintly reticulated, red-brown.
    Habitat
    In swamps and by streams in upland rain-forest, upland evergreen bushland and grassland; 1350–3100 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 T2 T4 T6 U2 worldwide in temperate regions and mountains and highlands of the tropics

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Ethiopia

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Canary Is., Central European Rus, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Nebraska, Netherlands, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Sicilia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Svalbard, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Yugoslavia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Cape Provinces, Colorado, Falkland Is., Hawaii, Irkutsk, Madagascar, Marion-Prince Edward, Mauritius, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Victoria

    Juncus effusus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1981 Miers, J. [4189], Brazil K000836981
    Jan 1, 1981 Glaziou [6439], Brazil K000836980
    Nov 25, 1963 Collenso, W. [s.n.], New Zealand K000906740 isotype
    Jan 1, 1925 s.coll. [10804], Brazil K000836982
    Fernald, M.L. [10985], Canada K000906779
    Mexia, Y. [5374], Brazil K000836978
    Mexia, Y. [5374], Brazil K000836979

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 326 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nobis, M. & al. (2015). Contributions to the flora of Asian European countries: new national and regional vascular plant records, 3 Acta Botanica Gallica: Botany Letters 162: 103-115.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Al-Qura'n, S. (2011). The flora of Jordan: A taxonomical revision of Juncaceae Arnaldoa 18: 33-36.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(4): 1-151. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 17: 1-298. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Kirschner, J. & al. (2002). Juncaceae Species Plantarum: Flora of the World 6-8: 1-237, 1-336,1-192. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Gremmen, N.J.M. (1982). The vegetation of the Subantarctic islands Marion and Prince Edward: 1-149. Dr W. Junk publishers. The Hague, Boston, London.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nobis, M. & al. (2015). Contributions to the flora of Asian European countries: new national and regional vascular plant records, 3 Acta Botanica Gallica: Botany Letters 162: 103-115.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Al-Qura'n, S. (2011). The flora of Jordan: A taxonomical revision of Juncaceae Arnaldoa 18: 33-36.
    • Timberlake, J.R. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2010). Flora Zambesiaca 13(4): 1-151. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Kirschner, J. & al. (2002). Juncaceae Species Plantarum: Flora of the World 6-8: 1-237, 1-336,1-192. Australian Biological Resources Study, Canberra.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Gremmen, N.J.M. (1982). The vegetation of the Subantarctic islands Marion and Prince Edward: 1-149. Dr W. Junk publishers. The Hague, Boston, London.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Weim. in Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 40: 143 (1946).
    • Buchen. in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV, 36: 135 (1906).
    • Flora of Tropical Africa
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 326 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0