1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Mentha L.
      1. Mentha aquatica L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Europe to Central Siberia and W. Asia.

    [FTEA]

    Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Mentha, RM Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Lectotype, selected by Tucker, Harley & Fairbrothers in Taxon 29: 233–255 (1980): Europe, origin unknown, in Herb. Cliff. (BM!, lecto.)
    Habit
    Perennial herb, 0.5–1.5 m tall, sweetly scented, often purple-tinged, with spreading rhizomes
    Stem
    Flowering stems erect, branched, quadrangular, glabrous to pubescent with whitish ± spreading to appressed hairs, and sparse sessile glands
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate; blades lanceolate to lanceolate-ovate, 2.4–6.3 × 1.1–3.6 cm, serrate, acute at apex, truncate to rounded or sometimes cuneate to attenuate at base, glabrous or subglabrous to pubescent with simple hairs on both surfaces, usually hairier on lower surface especially on veins, and with conspicuous sessile glands; petiole 0.5–1.4 cm long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences usually simple, and forming a terminal, often oblong head (thyrse), 1.4–2.3 cm diameter at anthesis, with 1–3 usually distant verticils below, from the axils of leaf-like bracts; upper bracts and bracteoles linear to narrowly linear-lanceolate, 1.5–4 mm long
    Flowers
    Flowers pedicellate
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, 2.6–3.7 mm long at anthesis, glabrous to pubescent and with sessile glands, tube conspicuously veined; lobes subequal, narrowly triangular to subulate, acute, (0.5–)0.7–1 mm long
    Corolla
    Corolla pale lilac or pink, up to 5 mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens usually long-exserted
    Fruits
    Nutlets pale brown, broadly ovoid to subtrigonous, 0.8–0.9 × 0.6–0.7 mm, finely verrucose, rarely shortly hairy toward apex
    Figures
    Fig 16, p114
    Ecology
    By water and in marshes; 1100–2150 m (often at lower altitudes in temperate regions)
    Conservation
    Least concern; widely distributed
    Note
    Leaf shape is very variable: glabrous specimens and those with rather small, narrow leaves are not uncommon. All specimens examined from the Flora area have hermaphrodite flowers with exserted anthers. Individuals with functionally female flowers, with included stamens, occur widely elsewhere.
    Distribution
    Range: South through Central Africa to Malawi and South Africa, widely distributed in temperate regions of the Old World, from Europe and N Africa eastwards to the Caucasus and Iran Flora districts: U2 U4 K3 K4 T1 T3 T4 T7

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Angola, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Botswana, Bulgaria, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Free State, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Madeira, Malawi, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Uganda, Ukraine, West Siberia, Yugoslavia, Zambia

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil South, Chile Central, Chile North, Costa Rica, Iceland, Illinois, Juan Fernández Is., Mexico Northwest, St.Helena, Trinidad-Tobago

    Mentha aquatica L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Bornmüller [2167], Hungary K000494824
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 238], United Kingdom K000914349
    Waisbecker, A. [2653], Hungary K000494823
    Barth, J. [s.n.], Switzerland K000494825
    Day, C.D. [927], Turkey K000341616
    Sole, W. [s.n.] K000494815
    Sole, W. [s.n.] K000494816
    Boutigny, J.F.D. [s.n.] K000494817
    Boutigny, J.F.D. [s.n.], France K000494818
    Borbas, V. [1755], Hungary K000494822
    Borbas, V. [1754], Hungary K000494820
    Borbas, V. [2571], Hungary K000494819
    Wirtgen, P. [123], Germany K000494826
    Wirtgen, P. [123], Germany K000494827
    Oborny, A. [1752], Czech Republic K000494821

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 576 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Malyschev, L.I. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 11: 1-310. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Van Heurck, H. & De Beucker, J.I. (1861). Antwerpsche Analytische Flora 1: 1-192. Drukkerij der weduwe Jos. Van Ishoven, Antwerpen.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (eds.) (2007). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica, volumen VI, Dicotyledóneas (Haloragaceae-Phytolaccaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 111: 1-933.
    • Malyschev, L.I. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 11: 1-310. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2004). Liste de la Flore vasculaire de l'île Robinson Crusoe archipel Juan Fernández, Chili Journal de Botanique Société de Botanique de France 24: 67-78.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Eth. 5: 552 (2006).
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 288, t. 127 (1994)
    • F.S.A. 28(4): 111 (1985)
    • E & P., Pf. IV. 3a: 320 (1896)
    • DC., Prodr. 12: 170 (1848)
    • Benth., Lab. Gen. Sp.: 176 (1833)
    • Sp. Pl.: 576 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/