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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

[KBu]

Suddee, S., A. J. Paton, & Parnell, J. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of Tribe Ocimeae Dumort. (Lamiaceae) in Continental South East Asia III. Ociminae. Kew Bulletin, 60(1), 3-75. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4110885

Distribution
Tropical Africa, America and Asia, widely cultivated.
Ecology
Cultivated.
Morphology General Habit
Aromatic, annual or short lived perennial herbs, 10- 50 cm tall
Morphology Leaves
Leaves elliptic, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or ovate-oblong, 5 - 35 x 5 - 20 mm, apex acute, base cuneate or obtuse, margin entire or sparsely and shallowly serrate, glandular-punctate, glabrous above, pubescent on veins beneath or pubescent on both sides with longer hairs on midrib and lateral veins beneath; petiole 2 - 20 mm long, slender, pubescent with long patent hairs
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens with posterior having a glabrous tranverse process near base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, 1.5 - 2.5 mm long at anthesis, 4 - 5.5 mm long in fruit; posterior lip rounded, decurrent on tube, slightly accrescent, sometimes apiculate at apex; anterior lip with 2 median lanceolate, acuminate teeth, longer than posterior, lateral teeth broad deltoid, acute, almost equal to posterior; throat open; tube with or without sessile glands outside, with a ring of dense villous hairs at throat and glabrous base inside
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or light purple, 4 - 5.5 mm long; lobes entire, villous on back, with or without sessile glands; posterior lip with 2 median oblong lobes and 2 lateral obovate-oblong lobes; anterior lip boat shaped, oblong or ovate- oblong in outline; tube straight, glabrous on both sides
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets black, narrowly oblong, 1 - 1.5 mm long, minutely tuberculate, producing mucilage when wet.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence lax, verticils up to 10 mm apart, axis densely pubescent with retrose hairs; bracts ovate, to 5 mm long, apex acute or acuminate, base attenuate, margin pilose, glandular-punctate; pedicels recurved, 1 - 2.5 mm long, shorter than fruiting calyx, finely patent-pubescent
Morphology Stem
Stems round-quadrangular, densely pubescent with spreading and sometimes retrorse hairs, much longer at nodes
Note
This species is of hybrid origin, derived from a cross between Ocimum americanum and O. basilicum (Paton & Putievsky 1996). It freely hybridises with O. basilicum in cultivation and intermediates are not uncommon.
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting January - December.
Type
South Vietnam. (not found, no specimen at P or BM). Neotype: [Vietnam] Cochinchine, Talmy 76 (Neotype, K; isoneotype, P).
Vernacular
Cambodian: Chy, Ci Prohae, Chi Kra Chi, Thoo Kay. Laotian: I Tou, Phak I Tou. Thai: Mang Lak, Maeng Lak (Central); Kum Kaw, Komko Khaao (Northern). Vietnamese: Cien Thue, Cay Hat- Huong, Cay Ich Gioi, E Trang, Hung Que.

[FTEA]

Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Type
Type: South Vietnam (not found, no specimen at P or BM) neotype chosen by Sudee, Paton & Parnell, ined.: Vietnam [Cochinchine], Talmy 76 (K!, neo. P, isoneo.)
Morphology General Habit
Aromatic, annual or short-lived perennial herb, 10–70 cm tall
Morphology Stem
Stems roundedquadrangular, pilose with spreading hairs, much longer at nodes, often also with short retrorse hairs on two sides
Morphology Leaves
Leaves elliptic, lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate or ovateoblong, 1–5(–8) × 0.5–2(–4) cm, entire or sparsely and shallowly serrate, apex acute, base cuneate or obtuse, glabrous above, pubescent on veins beneath or pubescent on both sides with longer hairs on midrib and lateral veins beneath; petiole 2–30(–40) mm long, slender, pubescent with long patent hairs, glandular-punctate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence lax, verticils up to 10 mm apart, axis densely pubescent with retrose hairs; bracts ovate, to 5 mm long, apex acute or acuminate, base attenuate, margin pilose; pedicels recurved, 1–2.5 mm long, shorter than fruiting calyx, finely patent pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, 1.5–2.5 mm long at anthesis; tube with or without sessile glands outside, with a ring of long, dense hairs at throat; posterior lip rounded, decurrent on tube, slightly accrescent, sometimes apiculate at apex; median teeth of anterior lip lanceolate, acuminate, longer than posterior, teeth of lateral lobes broad, deltate, acute; fruiting calyx 4–5.5 mm long, throat open
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or light purple, 4–5.5 mm long; tube straight, glabrous on both sides
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens with posterior having a glabrous tranverse process near base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets black, narrowly oblong, 1–1.5 mm long, minutely tuberculate, producing mucilage when wet.
Ecology
Disturbed ground, damp areas; near sea-level to 1800(–2250) m
Conservation
Least concern; widespread
Note
This species is of hybrid origin, derived from a cross between O. americanum and O. basilicum, see Paton & Putievsky in K.B. 51: 513 (1996). It freely hybridises with O. basilicum in cultivation and intermediates are not uncommon.
Distribution
Range: Found in tropical Asia and tropical America, widespread in tropical Africa from Cameroon to Madagascar and in the warmer parts of South Africa Flora districts: U2 U3 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8

[KBu]
Use
In Cambodia and Thailand, the nutlets, which produce mucilage when wet, are used for making soup or a sweet desert (Matin 230, P; Kerr 4463 BM, K). The fresh leaves are the main side dish for the traditional Thai rice noodle dish called 'Khanom Chean'.

Native to:

Angola, Borneo, Botswana, Cambodia, Cameroon, China South-Central, China Southeast, Ethiopia, India, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Guinea, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Queensland, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Brazil Northeast, Guatemala, Mexico Southeast, Netherlands Antilles

Ocimum × africanum Lour. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2011 Leandri [238], Madagascar K000735028
Jan 1, 2010 Madulid, D.A. [27331], Philippines K000897243
Forman, L.L. [404], Indonesia K000897316
Horsfield, T. [126], Indonesia K000897315
Merrill, E.D. [437], Philippines K000897246
s.coll. [126], Indonesia K000897317
Savinierre, E. de la [822], Indonesia K000897318
Fraser, M. [39], Malaysia K000897320
Talmy [76], Vietnam K000911679 neotype
Kadir [A2792], Malaysia K000897319
Williams, R.S. [2709], Philippines K000897245
Floyd, A. [3509], Papua New Guinea K000897226
Petit [s.n.], Ethiopia K000347084 isotype
Eyma, P.J. [1747], Indonesia K000897321
Romero, E.M. [29066], Philippines K000897244
da Silva, M. [2842], Angola Ocimum americanum var. pilosum K001008732
Barbosa, G. [9904], Angola Ocimum americanum var. pilosum K001008734
Gossweiler, J. [s.n.], Angola Ocimum americanum var. pilosum K001008736
Barbosa, G. [10112], Angola Ocimum americanum var. pilosum K001008735
Borges, A. [403], Angola Ocimum americanum var. pilosum K001008733
Millar, A.N. [NGF35445], Papua New Guinea Ocimum × citriodorum K000897225
Wallich, N. [s.n.], India Ocimum × citriodorum K000911682
Bateson, G. [55], Papua New Guinea Ocimum × citriodorum K000897224

First published in Fl. Cochinch.: 370 (1790)

Accepted by

  • (2020). file:///C:/Users/rg02kg/Downloads/7790-19423-1-PB.pdf epublication.
  • Bramley, G.L.C. (2019). Flora Malesiana 23: 1-444. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Harley, R.M. (2012). Checklist and key of genera and species of the Lamiaceae of the Brazilian Amazon Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 63: 129-144.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Suddee, S., Paton, A.J. & Parnell, J.A.N. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of the tribe Ocimeae Dumort (Lamiaceae) in continental South East Asia III. Ociminae Kew Bulletin 60: 3-75.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Not accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Ocimum americanum.]

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). file:///C:/Users/rg02kg/Downloads/7790-19423-1-PB.pdf epublication.
  • Bramley, G.L.C. (2019). Flora Malesiana 23: 1-444. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Harley, R.M. (2012). Checklist and key of genera and species of the Lamiaceae of the Brazilian Amazon Rodriguésia; Revista do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal, Jardim Botânico e Estaçao Biologica do Itatiaya 63: 129-144.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
  • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Suddee, S., Paton, A.J. & Parnell, J.A.N. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of the tribe Ocimeae Dumort (Lamiaceae) in continental South East Asia III. Ociminae Kew Bulletin 60: 3-75.
  • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Fl. Cochinch.: 370 (1790)
  • K.B. 60: 28(2005).
  • Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. 24 (2): 343 (1935)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0