1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Ocimum L.
      1. Ocimum basilicum L.

        Basil is an important economic crop producing annually c.100 tonnes of essential oil worldwide and with a trade value as a pot herb of around US$15 million per year. It is also widely used in systems of indigenous medicine.

    [FWTA]

    Labiatae, J. K. Morton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A stout, bushy, aromatic herb
    Flowers
    White flowers in loose racemes
    Cytology
    Tetraploid.
    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Ocimum basilicum, commonly known as basil, is an aromatic annual herb and an important economic crop.

    Basil is an important economic crop producing annually c.100 tonnes of essential oil worldwide and with a trade value as a pot herb of around US$15 million per year. It is also widely used in systems of indigenous medicine.

    Much confusion surrounds basil taxonomy with several forms having different attributes being recognised under the same name. However, a study by Dr Eli Putievsky of Newe Ya'ar Research Centre, Haifa, Israel, working with Alan Paton during a sabbatical year at Kew, used analysis of chromosome numbers and essential oils alongside morphological descriptions to investigate a standardisation of the approach. This type of work is extremely important in order to develop the full economic and medicinal potential of plant species. 

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Tropics of Asia and Africa; widely cultivated elsewhere.

    Description

    Ocimum basilicum is an aromatic, annual herb, 0.3-0.5 metres tall, but some cultivars can reach up to 1 m. The plant is almost hairless. Some cultivars, such as the 'Dark Opal', have leaves and stems deep purple in colour. The leaves are ovate, often puckered, flowers white or pink, and fruits have four small nutlets, which are mucilaginous when wet.

    Ocimum basilicum is closely related to and frequently confused with Ocimum africanum and Ocimum americanum , but they can be identified on the basis of indumentum (hair distribution) and flower size. Lemon-scented cultivars are usually the result of crosses between O. basilicum and O. africanum .

    Uses

    Basil is used to flavour soups and sauces and is the main ingredient of pesto sauce. The leaves can be eaten as a salad. Basil is also used in perfumery, soap-making, and to flavour liqueurs. The seeds are edible, and when soaked in water become mucilaginous. In parts of the Mediterranean they are made into a refreshing drink known as cherbet tokhum.

    Basil is widely used in systems of traditional medicine, including Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine. It is used for treating digestive system disorders, such as stomach ache and diarrhoea, kidney complaints, and infections. In Africa, for example, it is used for treating whooping cough and various types of fever. The leaves are pulped in water to make ear- and eye-drops in parts of west Africa, and a leaf decoction is used for treating coughs.

    The leaves are used to make an insecticide that can protect stored crops from beetle damage

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in Kew's seed bank vault at Wakehurst.

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: 13

    Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox (the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)

    Germination testing: Successful

    Composition values: Oil content 24%, Protein 21%

    Cultivation

    Unlike other herbs grown in the same family (Lamiaceae) such as rosemary, sage and mint, basil is tropical in origin and as a result is not frost-hardy.

    Ecology
    Cultivated, not frost-hardy.
    Conservation
    Least concern.
    Hazards

    None.

    [FTEA]

    Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Lectotype, see Paton, loc. cit. (1992): western Asia, Linnean Herbarium 749.5 (LINN!, lecto.)
    Habit
    Aromatic, annual or short-lived perennial herb, 20–60 cm tall
    Stem
    Stems roundedquadrangular, erect or ascending, often woody at base, branching above, glabrous or puberulent with minute hairs concentrated on two opposing faces of the stem, becoming minutely pubescent on the inflorescence axis, usually with young shoots in the axils of the leaves
    Leaves
    Leaf blades narrowly ovate to elliptic, 1.5–5 × 0.5–2 cm, entire to shallowly serrate or occasionally laciniate, apex acute to acuminate, base cuneate to attenuate, glabrous or with small hairs on veins beneath, glandular-punctate; petiole 2–40 mm long
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence lax, verticils up to 12 mm apart; bracts deciduous or not, narrowly ovate to elliptical, 3–8 × 1–3 mm, acute to cuspidate at apex, cuneate at base; pedicel up to 3–4 mm long, erect, ± flattened, slightly curved
    Calyx
    Calyx ± downwardpointing, 4–5 mm long at anthesis, posterior lip ± glabrous, tube and anterior lip pubescent or pilose, sparsely gland-dotted, interior with a dense ring of hairs at throat; posterior lip large, rounded at tip, decurrent, median teeth of anterior lip lanceolate, acuminate, lateral lobes deltate, cuspidate; fruiting calyx 6–8 mm long, throat open, posterior lip accrescent, decurrent, rounded and wider at tip, lateral and lower teeth of anterior lip ± convergent
    Corolla
    Corolla pink, white or creamy yellow, 7–8 mm long; tube straight, funnel-shaped, scarcely exceeding calyx
    Stamens
    Stamens exceeding corolla by 2–3 mm; posterior with a large, fleshy, flattened, glabrous outgrowth near base
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous
    Fruits
    Nutlets black, ovoid, longer than broad, 2–2.5 mm long, ± smooth to minutely tuberculate, mucilaginous when wet
    Figures
    Fig 22: 5-6, p 139
    Ecology
    Cultivated and disturbed ground, ground prone to flooding, grassland; sea-level to 1100 m
    Conservation
    Least concern though it is unclear where this species is native of.
    Note
    O. basilicum, Sweet Basil, is grown commercially elsewhere for its essential oils and a number of varieties have been proposed. Paton & Putievsky, loc. cit. (1996), suggest that none of these should be given formal varietal rank. One of them, formerly commonly known as var. difforme Benth., with laciniate leaves, has been cultivated on Pemba ( Vaughan 635).
    Distribution
    Range: Possibly native to Ethiopia, widely naturalised throughout tropical Africa, Asia and America, cultivated in Europe and SW Asia Flora districts: U3 K7 T1 T3 T6
    [FWTA]
    Use
    Commonly cultivated for culinary purposes
    [KSP]
    Use
    Food, perfume, flavoured liqueurs, medicine, insecticide.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, West Himalaya

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Bahamas, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Brazil Southeast, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Liberia, Line Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Mozambique, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Panamá, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South European Russi, Sudan, Tanzania, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Ukraine, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is., Xinjiang, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Basil

    Ocimum basilicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2007 Zaramela, G.S. [s.n.], Brazil K000479656
    Jan 1, 1999 Powell, D.A. [XI1354], Australia K000897334
    Jan 1, 1999 Quadra, A. [A4069], Malaysia K000897330
    Jul 1, 1997 Lugas, L. [1288], Malaysia K000897332
    May 5, 1988 Dyg. Awa [44381], Malaysia K000897327
    Jun 5, 1986 Burtt-Davy, J. [5288], South Africa K000347122 Unknown type material
    Apr 1, 1938 Schiffner, V. [2488], Indonesia K000897328
    India 33705.000
    USA 55958.000
    Tweedie [995], Kenya 2760.000
    Scott, H., Ethiopia 2761.000
    Pettet, A., Sudan 60221.000
    Backer, C.A. [19610], Indonesia K000897331
    Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Indonesia K000897335
    Wallich, N. [s.n.], Malaysia K000897353 Unknown type material
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 2713], India K001116887
    Reillo, J. [16459], Philippines K000897247
    Frake, C.O. [38105], Philippines K000897249
    Frake, C.O. [38073], Philippines K000897248
    s.coll. [s.n.], Indonesia K000897336
    Quadra, A. [A1040], Malaysia K000897329
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2713] K001116888
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2713] K001116889
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2713], India K001116890
    Prescott, T.A.K. [13], Papua New Guinea K000939078
    Jan 1, 2002 Carr, C.E. [16214], Papua New Guinea Ocimum citrodorum K000897222
    Jan 1, 2002 Millar, A.N. [NGF40930], Papua New Guinea Ocimum citrodorum K000897223
    Jan 1, 2002 Bateson, G. [136], Papua New Guinea Ocimum citrodorum K000897221
    Jan 1, 2002 Schiefenhoevel, W. [162], Papua New Guinea Ocimum citrodorum K000897239
    Carr, C.E. [11606], Papua New Guinea Ocimum citrodorum K000897218
    Brass, L.J. [1187], Papua New Guinea Ocimum citrodorum K000897220
    Daniels [6926], Papua New Guinea Ocimum citrodorum K000897219
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2715] Ocimum thyrsiflorum K001116905
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2715] Ocimum thyrsiflorum K001116906
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2715] Ocimum thyrsiflorum K001116907
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 2715] Ocimum thyrsiflorum K001116908

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 597 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Manikandan, R., Chandrasekar, K. & Srivastava, S.K. (2012). Life form analysis of the family Lamiaceae in Jammu & Kashmir, India Phytotaxonomy 12: 7-19.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Morales, R. (2011). Les Labiadas (Lamiaceae) de Guinea Ecuatorial Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 68: 199-223.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
    • Khanam, M. & Hassan, M.A. (2008). Lamiaceae Flora of Bangladesh 58: 1-161. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • National Parks Board Singapore (2006). Vascular Plant Life Checklist Pulau Ubin www.nparks.gov.sg/nparks_cms/cms/cmsmgr/data/6/PlantChkList.xls.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Suddee, S., Paton, A.J. & Parnell, J.A.N. (2005). Taxonomic Revision of the tribe Ocimeae Dumort (Lamiaceae) in continental South East Asia III. Ociminae Kew Bulletin 60: 3-75.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Mabberley, D.J. & De Kok, R.P.J. (2004). Labiatae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 25: 20-141. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1995). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 7: 1-394. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 4: 1-625. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R.M., Harvey, Y.B., Iwarsson, M., Otieno, D., Balkwill, K., Phillipson, P.B., Harley, R.M. & Willis, F. (2013). Flora Zambesiaca 8(8): 1-346. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Manikandan, R., Chandrasekar, K. & Srivastava, S.K. (2012). Life form analysis of the family Lamiaceae in Jammu & Kashmir, India Phytotaxonomy 12: 7-19.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
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    • Paton, A.J., Bramley, G., Ryding, O., Polhill, R., Harvey, Y., Iwarsson, M., Willis, F., Phillipson, P., Balkwill, K., Lukhoba, C., Otiend, D & Harley (2009). Lamiaceae (Labiatae) Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-430.
    • Khanam, M. & Hassan, M.A. (2008). Lamiaceae Flora of Bangladesh 58: 1-161. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Takeuchi, W. (2005). Floristic notes from a holocene successional environment in Papuasia Harvard Papers in Botany 10: 95-116.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Mabberley, D.J. & De Kok, R.P.J. (2004). Labiatae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 25: 20-141. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Welsh, S.L. (1998). Flora Societensis: 1-420. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1995). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 7: 1-394. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Wester, L. (1985). Checklist of the vasular plants of the Northern Line Islands Atoll Research Bulletin 287: 1-38.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 4: 1-625. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
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    • K.B. 51: 513 (1996)
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 296 (1994)
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    • E.P.A.: 845 (1963)
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0