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This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit. It is used as a medicine.
Salvia rosmarinus

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
romero, romero común

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1300 - 3000 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Subarbusto, arbusto

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Ecology
Alt. 1300 - 3000 m.
Conservation
Not Evaluated.
Morphology General Habit
Shrub.

[FTEA]

Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

Note
A native of the Mediterranean and widely cultivated as a culinary herb
Morphology General Habit
Shrub to 2 m tall
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile, linear, l5–20 × 1.5–4 mm, entire, strongly revolute
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence lax with verticils 2-flowered
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx 3–6 mm long, funnel-shaped, upper lip entire or minutely 3-lobed, lower lip 2-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla blue or white, rarely pink, 10–12 mm long, funnel-shaped, 2-lipped
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 2, long exserted.

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description
The 'wonder-herb' rosemary has been used variously as a medicine, food preservative, stimulant, memory enhancer, and of course as a flavoursome cooking ingredient.

Rosemary belongs to the Lamiaceae, commonly known as the mint family. It is related to other well-known herbs such as the basils (Ocimum), thymes (Thymus) and mints (Mentha), but its closest relative is the genus Salvia, which includes at least 900 species. One of these is sage (Salvia officinalis). Many scientists believe that rosemary is so similar to Salvia that it should be included in this group. Salvia and rosemary both have only two stamens (male organs of the flower, containing pollen), whereas in the mint family the usual number of stamens is four.

In the past, rosemary was believed to aid memory and was often made into garlands for students when they were sitting their exams. Scientific research has shown that rosmarinic acid, one of the main constituents of rosemary, inhibits certain enzymes linked to neurological disorders causing memory loss. Scientists at Kew investigating the benefits of rosmarinic acid found it has strong anti-oxidant properties.Preparations of rosemary are taken orally or applied topically for a variety of complaints. The leaves and flowers can also be used to make a tea, said to be good for headaches, colic, colds and nervous diseases as well as depression. Rosemary has also been used in herbal remedies for relieving asthma. Used in combination with essential oils from thyme (Thymus), lavender (Lavandula) and cedarwood (Cedrus), the essential oil of rosemary reportedly improves hair growth in people with allopecia. It also has antibacterial and antifungal properties. There is evidence that the essential oil relaxes the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, and may increase blood flow to the heart. However, the essential oil of rosemary is potent and can be toxic. It should be avoided by pregnant and breastfeeding women, and by people prone to seizures.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Rosmarinus officinalis is native to the Mediterranean region and Caucasus. Also native to this area are the other two species of rosemary ( R. tomentosus and R. eriocalyx ). Where these species overlap in the wild they form natural hybrids.

Description

Rosemary is an evergreen perennial shrub, best known for its strongly aromatic, needle-like evergreen leaves. The flowers are purplish white and strongly two-lipped, and have two long-exserted (protruding) stamens. The fruit consists of four dry nutlets (one-seeded sections).

Uses

 

Rosemary is one of the most prized culinary herbs, and is especially popular in Mediterranean cuisine. The leaves have a bitter, astringent taste which complements fatty foods such as lamb and oily fish. It can be used for both sweet and savoury dishes but is most often used as a dressing for roast meats. In Italy, butchers often include free sprigs of rosemary when selling meat. In England, a roast lamb is not complete without a dressing of rosemary, while it can also be used as a stuffing when barbecuing fish. Rosemary is also used as an aromatic herb to add flavour when smoking meats.

Rosemary's reputation for medicinal uses meant that it was planted in many old herbal gardens. It was a symbol for remembrance, and was even given a mention in Shakespeare's Hamlet: "There's rosemary, that's for remembrance", says Ophelia. Rosemary is one of the few plants that has been used for many centuries at both weddings and funerals, and is often used as an ornamental due to its pretty purplish white flowers. The aromatic fragrance of rosemary is used in perfumery and cosmetics.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox (the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)

Composition values: Oil content 12%, Protein 14%

Cultivation

This tough Mediterranean shrub needs a sunny position and light soil that doesn't become waterlogged. It is used to long, hot summers in its natural home and can withstand periods of drought, making it suitable for containers, as well as sunny borders. The new growth is soft and flexible but older stems become woody and this plant can form a substantial trunk in time. Propagation is simple from cuttings in early to midsummer. Cut pieces of new growth, around 10 cm long, and insert them into a pot of compost. Keep them moist and they should root by the autumn, when they can be potted up and grown on before planting out in spring.

This species at Kew

There are 15 specimens of Rosmarinus officinalis in the Economic Botany Collection, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew. These include samples of rosemary oil, leaves, wood and flowers. These items are made available to researchers from around the world by appointment.

The Herbarium at Kew contains both dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of rosemary. The details of some of these can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

Rosemary can be seen growing in the Queen's Garden, adjacent to Kew Palace and in the Sir Henry Price Walled Garden at Wakehurst.

Kew at the RHS Chelsea Flower Show 2011

In 2011, Kew partnered with The Times to produce a show garden to showcase the significance of plants to science and society.

The garden, designed by Chelsea gold medallist Marcus Barnett, featured species chosen to demonstrate both beauty and utility, including medicinal, commercial, and industrial uses to underline the fact that plants are invaluable to our everyday lives - without them, none of us could live on this planet; they produce our food, clothing and the air that we breathe.

Rosmarinus officinalis was one of the species that featured in the garden, which was awarded a Silver Medal.

"
Ecology
Dry scrub land in the Mediterranean region, but widely cultivated.
Conservation
Not threatened.
Hazards

The essential oil of rosemary is potent and should be avoided by pregnant and breastfeeding women. The oil may cause severe adverse effects including seizures when taken internally and may irritate the skin when applied externally.

[UPB]
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).
Use Materials
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Muscular-Skeletal System Disorders
Leaves and flowers - Used in liquid medicines and in topical medications (Lagos-López 2007).
Use Medicines Pain
Leaves and flowers - Used in liquid medicines to alleviate headache (Lagos-López 2007).
Use Medicines Skin or Subcutaneous Cellular Tissue Disorders
Leaves and flowers - Used in liquid medicines and in topical medications (Lagos-López 2007).

[KSP]
Use
Culinary herb, medicinal, symbol of remembrance, ornamental.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Baleares, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Greece, Italy, Libya, Morocco, Portugal, Sardegna, Sicilia, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Azores, Bermuda, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Great Britain, Kriti, Krym, Madeira, Mexico Central, Mexico Southwest, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago

English
Rosemary
Spanish
Romero.

Salvia rosmarinus Spenn. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2011 Chavez [798], Peru Rosmarinus officinalis K000735206
Jan 1, 2011 Chavez [798], Peru Rosmarinus officinalis K000735206
May 23, 2006 Folli [3222], Brazil Rosmarinus officinalis K000194503
Apr 19, 2006 Folli [3222], Brazil Rosmarinus officinalis K000194379
Mar 29, 2006 Murgia [380], Bolivia Rosmarinus officinalis K000194356

First published in Handb. Angew. Bot. 2: 447 (1835)

Accepted by

  • Drew, B.T. & al. (2017). Salvia united: The greatest good for the greatest number Taxon 66: 133-145.

Not accepted by

  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Rosmarinus officinalis.]

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Barina, Z., Rakaj, m. & Pifkó, D. (2013). Contributions to the flora of Albania, 4 Willdenowia 43: 165-184.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/