1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Blepharis Juss.
      1. Blepharis edulis (Forssk.) Pers.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mauritania to Angola and Pakistan.

    [FTEA]

    Acanthaceae (part 1), Kaj Vollesen, Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2008

    Habit
    Erect or procumbent annual herb; stems up to 60 cm long, subglabrous to densely scabrid-puberulous when young.
    Leaves
    Leaves: lamina linear to lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, largest 2.5–12 × 0.3–1.2 cm, margin entire to sinuate-dentate, scabrid-puberulous or sparsely so, below also with longer hairs on midrib.
    Inflorescences
    Spikes terminal (in larger plants seemingly axillary due to development of lateral branches), 1–9(–12) cm long; peduncle 0–1(–2.5) cm long, with 1–2 pairs of small sterile bracts; fertile bracts elliptic to slightly obovate, 1.2–3.8 cm long, narrowing abruptly to a recurved pungent tip of 1/3–1/2 the total length, each side with 3–8 straight teeth 1–7 mm long, pubescent to pilose or sparsely so (rarely puberulous) on veins, puberulous or sparsely so between; bracteoles 7–17 mm long, puberulous and with long pilose hairs.
    Calyx
    Sepals pubescent to pilose; dorsal ovate to elliptic with ligulate apical part, 10–18 mm long, 5-veined, apex truncate with 1–3 teeth; ventral elliptic or oblong, 8–12 mm long, 5-veined; lateral 5–9 mm long.
    Corolla
    Corolla bright blue or bluish mauve, with darker veins; tube 2–4 mm long; limb (9–)12–20(–23) mm long.
    Filaments
    Filaments 4–8 mm long, anterior pair hairy at base; appendage 3–5 mm long, as long or longer than the 2–4 mm long anthers.
    Fruits
    Capsule 7–9 mm long.
    Seeds
    Seed ± 5 × 5 mm.
    Figures
    Fig. 16.
    Distribution
    Range: Tanzania. Range: West Africa to Ethiopia and Somalia, north to Egypt and through Arabia and Iran to NW India Range: Karamoja District: near Moroto, 28 Oct. 1939, Range: Uganda. Range: Kenya. Flora districts: U1 K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T2 T3 T6 T7 Range: West Africa to Ethiopia and Somalia, north to Egypt and through Arabia and Iran to NW India
    Ecology
    Dry Acacia-Commiphora bushland, Acacia bushland and grassland, semidesert scrub, lava outcrops, hardpans, often on alkaline or saline soils; 150–1450 m
    Note
    Through the rainy season (and into the dry where moisture prevails) the plants continue to grow and become increasingly branched, in the end producing large procumbent plants with thick semi-woody stems up to 60 cm long. Blepharis edulis shows an enormous plasticity. Plants from the beginning of the rainy season (or in dry years) are small and often only have a single spike.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, Iran, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sinai, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen

    Blepharis edulis (Forssk.) Pers. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2012 Congdon, T.C.E. [777], Tanzania K000823898
    Jan 1, 1997 Lunt, W. [176], Yemen K000885410 holotype
    Bidgood, S. [5036], Tanzania K000190264
    Bove, N. [53], Yemen K000885412
    Delile, A.R. [s.n.], Yemen K000885411 isotype

    First published in Syn. Pl. 2: 180 (1806)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Vollesen, K. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae(1): 1-285.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Not accepted by

    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux. [Cited as Blepharis ciliaris.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Rechinger, K.H. (1966). Flora Iranica 24: 1-9. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F.E.E. 5: 353 (2006)
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 380 (2006).
    • Biol. Skr. 51(2): 438 (2005)
    • Vollesen, Blepharis: 103 (2000)
    • Fl. Somala 2: 350 (1932)
    • Broun & Massey, Fl. Sudan: 341 (1929)
    • Chiovenda, Fl. Somala: 251 (1929)
    • F.T.A. 5: 102 (1899) pro parte
    • P.O.A. C: 369 (1895)
    • J.L.S. 7: 36 (1863)
    • Syn. Pl. 2: 180 (1806)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0