1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Brillantaisia P.Beauv.
      1. Brillantaisia lamium (Nees) Benth.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FWTA]

    Acanthaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A coarse herb, erect branched 2-4 ft. high, more or less pilose at first
    Flowers
    Blue- or violet-purple flowers 1-1 1/4 in. long in a glandular-pubescent panicle
    Ecology
    In damp shady places.
    [FTEA]

    Acanthaceae (part 2), Kaj Vollesen. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Type: Liberia, Cape Palmas, Ansell s.n. (K!, lecto.; P!, iso.; selected by Sidwell, l.c.)
    Habit
    Coarse perennial herb; stems up to 1.5(–2) m long, creeping and rooting at the base, then erect or ± scandent, subglabrous to puberulous and then also with broad pilose many-celled glossy hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves with petiole up to 6(–9) cm long; lamina cordiform or broadly so (rarely ovate), largest (6–)10–17 × (3.5–)5–10.5 cm, apex subacute to acuminate, usually drawn out into an obtuse tip, base subcordate to cordate (rarely rounded to subcuneate), usually without decurrent flanges on petiole, margin entire to crenate, pubescent with broad glossy hairs, sometimes only along veins with subglabrous lamina
    Inflorescences
    Panicle very loose, 10–25(–40) cm long, glabrous to puberulous and with sparse to dense long broad glandular hairs; primary bracts elliptic-obovate or broadly so, from leaf-size down to 5 × 2 mm near apex, glabrous to puberulous and with broad glossy hairs; pedicels 0.5–4 mm long
    Calyx
    Calyx glabrous to puberulous and with long broad glossy hairs; lobes linear-lanceolate, 8–14 mm long, tapering gradually, similar or dorsal slightly longer and wider
    Corolla
    Corolla tube whitish, lower lip blue to dark blue or purple to dark brillant purple, upper lip greenish tinged bluish to dark purple, 30–55 mm long, with dark purple glandular hairs; tube (5–)7–11 mm long; lower lip 27–45 mm long, lobes triangular-ovate, 4–7 mm long; anthers 6–9 mm long, glabrous or hairy; staminodes filiform
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous
    Fruits
    Capsule 25–45 mm long, the valves 3–5 mm wide, glabrous except sometimes with long a few non-glandular hairs near apex
    Seeds
    Seed 1.5–2 mm long
    Ecology
    Swamps and continuously waterlogged grassland areas in forest, swamp forests, lake shores, streams sides; 1100–1600 m
    Note
    Typical B. lamium from West Africa is much more slender and subglabrous and with considerably smaller flowers than the East African plants. But eastwards through Nigeria, Cameroon and Congo the plants become gradually coarser and more hairy and the flowers become larger. Over the whole range there is no way to separate the large-flowered East African material ( B. eminii, sensu stricto) from the typical West African material. A similar pattern where eastern plants from higher altitudes have larger flowers than western lowland plants is known in other Acanthaceae, e.g. from Anisosepalum alboviolaceum. All specimens seen from Kenya, apart from the one cited above from Masai District are escaped and naturalised from original garden plantings of Ugandan material. The species is now quite common in swamps around Nairobi.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U4 K 4 (see note), K6 T1 Range: Widespread in the forest regions of West Africa to S Sudan, W Ethiopia and N Angola

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaïre

    Brillantaisia lamium (Nees) Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2005 Harvey, Y.B. [127], Cameroon K000199797
    Nov 1, 2004 Pollard, B.J. [881], Cameroon K000199745
    Jan 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [4497], Cameroon K000109468
    Jan 1, 2002 Sidwell, K. [418], Cameroon K000109457
    Jan 1, 2002 Ensermu, K. [3517], Cameroon K000109511
    Jul 1, 1999 Cheek, M. [8697], Cameroon K000339076
    Nov 1, 1997 [Stuhlmann] [3644], Tanzania K000393847 syntype
    Jan 1, 1996 Schoenenberger, J. [4], Cameroon K000198726
    Jan 1, 1996 Schoenenberger, J. [27], Cameroon K000198725
    Jan 1, 1993 Sidwell, K. [6], Cameroon K000518953
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [479], Cameroon K000011276
    Jan 1, 1993 Mbani, J. M. [71], Cameroon K000011275
    Jan 1, 1990 Manning, S.D. [398], Cameroon K000029208
    Jan 1, 1990 Manning, S.D. [67], Cameroon K000029206
    Jan 1, 1990 Manning, S.D. [1046], Cameroon K000029207
    Jan 1, 1987 Thomas, D.W. [4235], Cameroon K000029209
    Jan 1, 1987 Thomas, D.W. [4235], Cameroon K000029205
    Meikle, R.D. [590], Nigeria 13069.000
    Hepper, F.N. [8608], Cameroon K000029202
    Gossweiler, J. [131], Angola K001009172
    Maitland, T.D. [1619], Cameroon K000029201
    Vogel [17], Nigeria K000393863
    Johnston, H.H. [0 s.n.23], Cameroon K000029200
    Millen, H. [7], Nigeria K000393862
    Ansell [s.n.], Nigeria K000393860
    Ansell [s.n.], Nigeria K000393861
    Ansell [s.n.], Nigeria K000393864
    Thompson, S.A. [1460], Cameroon K000029203
    Chancellor, R.J. [206], Uganda Brillantaisia eminii 2804.000
    Dawlins, H.C. [616], Uganda Brillantaisia eminii 13070.000

    First published in W.J.Hooker, Niger Fl.: 477 (1849)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Daniel, T.F. & Figueiredo, E. (2009). The California Academy of Sciences Gulf of Guinea Expeditions (2001, 2006, 2008) VII. Acanthaceae of São Tomé and Príncipe Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, IV, 60: 623-674.
    • Vollesen, K. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Acanthaceae(1): 1-285.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Monod in Mém. I.F.A.N. 18: 13 (1952).
    • Exell Cat. S. Tomé 260
    • Chev. Bot.493
    • Benoist in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 60: 334
    • F.T.A. 5: 38
    • in Fl. Nigrit. 477 (1849)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • F.E.E. 5: 371 (2006).
    • Biol. Skr. 51(2): 439 (2005)
    • Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. London 28: 97, fig. 14 (1998)
    • Lebrun & Stork, Enum. Pl. Afr. Trop. 4: 475 (1997)
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 267 (1994)
    • Fl. Gabon 13: 88, pl. 17, 4–8 (1966)
    • F.W.T.A. (Ed. 2) 2: 406, fig. 300 (1963)
    • Exell, Cat. Vasc. Pl. Sao Tomé: 260 (1944)
    • F.W.T.A. 2: 254 (1931)
    • Bull. Soc. Bot. France 60: 334 (1913)
    • F.T.A. 5: 38 (1899)
    • Hook., Niger Fl.: 477 (1849)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0