1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Abrus Adans.
      1. Abrus fruticulosus Wall. ex Wight & Arn.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Madagascar, Assam to S. China and Indo-China.

    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Habit
    Perennial, Climbing, Shrub
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Woody shrub 0.9–3.6 m. tall, virgately branched.
    Stem
    Stems adpressed pubescent, later glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves 14–32-foliolate; petioles mostly under 1 cm. long; leaflets oblong-elliptic, distinctly rounded at the sides or in one subspecies oblong with parallel sides, 0.65–3.3 cm. long, 0.45–1.35 cm. wide, rounded and mucronulate at the apex, rounded to subcuneate at the base, glabrous above, finely adpressed puberulous beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal and in upper axils, 13–30 cm. long; peduncle very short; flowers subsessile in numerous fascicles on very short reduced branchlets; pedicels 2.5 mm. long; bracts and bracteoles very short.
    Calyx
    Calyx adpressed pubescent, obconic, 3 mm. long, truncate or undulate.
    Corolla
    Corolla cream, yellow or blue and mauve to purple, the wings usually darker than the standard, 1.1–1.4 cm. long.
    Fruits
    Pods oblong to oblanceolate, 5.2–7.2 cm. long, 0.7–1.15 cm. wide, the valves rather thick and woody, adpressed pubescent and usually markedly tuberculate.
    Seeds
    Seeds brown with darker brown mottling, arranged in the pod with the longest dimension at right-angles to the long axis of the pod, rounded-oblong or rhombic, compressed, longest dimension 6–7.5 mm., shorter dimension 5–6 mm., 2.5 mm. thick, finely shagreened; hilum small; rim-aril only slightly developed but a cartilaginous funicle remnant is present.
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Sudanian woodland, Zambezian woodland, Zambezian bushland and thicket, Somalia-Masai bushland and thicket, Somalia-Masai woodland
    Habit
    Perennial, Not climbing, Shrub
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca Leguminosae subfamily Papillionoideae by D.K. Harder

    Habit
    Woody shrub 0.9–3.6 m tall, virgately branched. Woody shrub 0.9–3.6 m tall, virgately branched.
    Stem
    Stems appressed-pubescent, later glabrous; bark smooth, red to red-brown, lenticels light beige-grey. Stems appressed-pubescent, later glabrous; bark smooth, red to red-brown, lenticels light beige-grey.
    Leaves
    Leaves 14–34-foliolate; petioles 0–1(2.8) cm long; leaflets 5–33 × 4.5–15 mm, oblong-elliptic, distinctly rounded at the sides, or oblong with parallel sides in one subspecies, dimensions increase distally, rounded or mucronulate at the apex, rounded to subcuneate at the base, glabrous on upper surface, finely appressed puberulous beneath; stipules 3–6 mm long, subulate. Leaves 14–34-foliolate; petioles 0–1(2.8) cm long; leaflets 5–33 × 4.5–15 mm, oblong-elliptic, distinctly rounded at the sides, or oblong with parallel sides in one subspecies, dimensions increase distally, rounded or mucronulate at the apex, rounded to subcuneate at the base, glabrous on upper surface, finely appressed puberulous beneath; stipules 3–6 mm long, subulate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal and in upper axils, 13–30 cm long; peduncle very short; flowers subsessile in numerous fascicles on short shoots; pedicels 2.5 mm long; bracts and bracteoles very short. Inflorescences terminal and in upper axils, 13–30 cm long; peduncle very short; flowers subsessile in numerous fascicles on short shoots; pedicels 2.5 mm long; bracts and bracteoles very short.
    Calyx
    Calyx 3 mm long, obconic, truncate or undulate, appressed-pubescent, with hairs ± oriented in one direction. Calyx 3 mm long, obconic, truncate or undulate, appressed-pubescent, with hairs ± oriented in one direction.
    Corolla
    Corolla cream, yellow, pale purple, mauve, blue to light violet, wings usually darker than the standard, 8–14 mm long. Corolla cream, yellow, pale purple, mauve, blue to light violet, wings usually darker than the standard, 8–14 mm long.
    Fruits
    Pods 5.4–7(7.9) × 0.7–1.3 cm, oblong to oblanceolate, the valves somewhat thick and woody, appressed-pubescent sometimes velutinous and usually markedly tuberculate. Pods 5.4–7(7.9) × 0.7–1.3 cm, oblong to oblanceolate, the valves somewhat thick and woody, appressed-pubescent sometimes velutinous and usually markedly tuberculate.
    Seeds
    Seeds brown with darker brown mottling especially near hilum, dull, arranged in the pod with the longest dimension at right angles to the pod's long axis, 5–7.5 × 5–6 × 2–3 mm, rounded-oblong or rhombic, compressed; hilum small; rim aril slightly developed with cartilaginous funicle remnant present. Seeds brown with darker brown mottling especially near hilum, dull, arranged in the pod with the longest dimension at right angles to the pod's long axis, 5–7.5 × 5–6 × 2–3 mm, rounded-oblong or rhombic, compressed; hilum small; rim aril slightly developed with cartilaginous funicle remnant present.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Benin, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China Southeast, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil West-Central, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Philippines, Suriname

    Abrus fruticulosus Wall. ex Wight & Arn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1990 Maesen, L.J.G. van der [2995], India K000496714
    Jan 1, 1917 Barber, C.A. [350], India K000496716
    Jan 1, 1917 Thomson [s.n.], India K000496715
    Jan 1, 1917 Wight, R. [5820], Tamil Nadu K000496721 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1917 Wight [731], India K000496717
    Jan 1, 1917 Wight [s.n.], India K000496719
    Jan 1, 1917 Wight [731], India K000496720
    Wight, R. [5820], Tamil Nadu K000496722 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000496718
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5820] K001122267
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5820] K001122268
    Sep 1, 2004 Lovett, J.C. [4709], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384858
    Jun 1, 1965 Thomas, A.S. [1569], Sudan Abrus schimperi K000384875
    Jun 1, 1965 Scheffler, G. [138], Kenya Abrus schimperi K000384863
    Jun 1, 1965 Carmichael [826], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384854
    Mar 25, 1960 Eggeling, W.J. [6086], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384851
    Mar 25, 1960 Burtt, B.D. [1431], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384852
    Mar 25, 1960 Schimper [1552], Ethiopia Abrus schimperi K000418302 holotype
    Mar 25, 1960 Richards, H.M. [7930], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384850
    Bally, P.R.O. [8295], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384846
    Chancellor, R.J. [254], Uganda Abrus schimperi K000384871
    Chancellor, R.J. [254], Uganda Abrus schimperi K000384872
    Polhill, R. [1215], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384856
    Fanshawe, D.B. [10820], Zambia Abrus schimperi K000384886
    Lawton, R.M. [2221], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384849
    Gilbert, M.G. [6010], Kenya Abrus schimperi K000384864
    Gillet, J.B. [18220], Kenya Abrus schimperi K000384869
    Gillet, J.B. [19077], Kenya Abrus schimperi K000384870
    Peter, A. [38916], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384847
    Verdcourt [5241], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384862
    Hooper, S.S. [1983], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384848
    Schimper [1552], Ethiopia Abrus schimperi K000418301 Unknown type material
    Bidgood, S. [3094], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384859
    Bidgood, S. [1055], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384860
    Bidgood, S. [922], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384861
    Richards, H.M. [18044], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384853
    Luke, P.A. [9327], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384857
    Liebenberg, L.C.C. [255], Uganda Abrus schimperi K000384874
    Newbould, J.B. [7038], Kenya Abrus schimperi K000384868
    Hazel, B. [633], Uganda Abrus schimperi K000384873
    Mwachala, G. [780], Kenya Abrus schimperi K000384867
    Turner, L. [235], Sudan Abrus schimperi K000384877
    Kabuye, C.H.S. [728], Kenya Abrus schimperi K000384865
    Conrads, E.A.H. [13431], Tanzania Abrus schimperi K000384855

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Ind. Orient. 1: 236 (1834)

    Accepted by

    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Brummitt, R.K. & al. (2007). Flora Zambesiaca 3(3): 1-258. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    International Legume Database and Information Service
    • Ambasta, S. P. (1986). The useful plants of India
    • Backer, C. A. (1963). Flora of Java. Groningen, The Netherlands

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0