1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Ceratonia L.
      1. Ceratonia siliqua L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Medit. to Iran.

    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Mediterranean-Sahara regional transition zone; forest, Mediterranean-Sahara regional transition zone - shrubland., Mediterranean shrublands., Mediterranean forests.
    Habit
    Perennial, Not climbing, Tree
    Vernacular
    Algaroba, Carob, Carob Tree, Caroubier, Locust Bean, Locust Tree, Rozhkovoe Derevo, St. John's Bread, St.John's Bread, Tzaregradskie Rozhki, Tzeratoniya Struchkovaya
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    It is an evergreen tree.
    Leaves
    Leaflets 2–8 pairs, coriaceous.
    Flowers
    Small greenish ♂ ♀ or hermaphrodite flowers with no petals and 5 exserted stamens (in the ♂ and hermaphrodite) in usually short racemes which are axillary terminal or clustered on the older wood.
    Fruits
    Thick coriaceous pulpy indehiscent pods 12–30 cm. long and 2 cm. thick.
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Chemical products, Environmental, Food and Drink, Forage, Medicine, Miscellaneous, Wood

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., France, Greece, Iran, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Peru, Sardegna, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Baleares, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, China Southeast, Corse, Ethiopia, India, Iraq, Kenya, Madeira, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Namibia, New South Wales, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Portugal, South Australia, Sudan, Tanzania, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Ceratonia siliqua L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1026 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Zervous, S., Raus, T. & Yannitsaros, A. (2009). Additons to the flora of the island of Kalimnos (SE Aegean, Greece) Willdenowia 39: 165-177.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) (1989). Med-checklist 4: 1-458. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Rechinger, K.H. (1986). Flora Iranica 160: 1-11. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M. & Long, G. (eds.) (1989). Med-checklist 4: 1-458. Conservatoire et Jardin Botaniques de la Ville de Genève.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Rechinger, K.H. (1986). Flora Iranica 160: 1-11. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    International Legume Database and Information Service
    • Polhill, R, M. (1990). Legumineuses. In: Flore des Mascareignes, Vol 80. J. Bosser et a
    • Strahm, W. (1989). Plant Red Data Book for Rodrigues
    • Horn, P. E. (1988). Herbarium References
    • Ambasta, S. P. (1986). The useful plants of India
    • Healy, A. (1985). Standard common names for weeds in New Zealand
    • White, F. (1983). The Vegetation of Africa
    • Ross, J. H. (1982). Caesalpinoideae. In: Flora Southern Africa 16, pt. 1. Ross. J. H.
    • Townsend, C. C. & Guest, E. (1974). Flora of Iraq. Vol. 3. Baghdad.
    • Ali, S. I. (1973). Flora of Pakistan, No. 54 Caesalpiniaceae. Karachi:Univ Karac
    • Brenan, J. P. M. (1967). Caesalp. In: Flora Trop. East Africa. Milne-Redhead & Polhill
    • Watt, J. M. & Breyer-Brandwijk, M (1962). Medicinal & Poisonous Plants of Southern & Eastern Africa
    • Komarov, V. L. (1945). Flora of the U. S. S. R. Vol XI (Engl. Translation 1972)
    • Palibin, I. V. (1941). In: Flora URSS, Vol. 11. Mosqua, Leningrad. (Rus)
    • Cooke, T. (1903). The Flora of the Presidency of Bombay Vol. 1
    • Bojer, W. (1837). Hortus Mauritianus ou Enumeration des Plants... l'ile Maurice

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Legumes of the World Online
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/