1. Thymelaeaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FTEA]

Thymelaeaceae, B. Peterson (University of Göteborg). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1978

Habit
Trees or shrubs (sometimes lianes), rarely perennial herbs, very rarely annuals
Stem
Stems and branches with tough cortical, often shining, fibres
Leaves
Leaves alternate or opposite, sessile or shortly petiolate, simple, entire, small needle-like, 1-nerved, to large flat, pinnately nerved, without stipules, herbaceous or coriaceous, sometimes glandular-punctate
Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal or axillary, sessile or pedunculate, racemose (spikes, fascicles, umbels or heads), flowers rarely solitary, often with deciduous or persistent bracts
Flowers
Flowers bisexual, polygamous or dioecious, regular or rarely slightly irregular, sweetly scented at night
Calyx
Calyx (hypanthium, perianth or receptacle) tubular or funnel-shaped, sometimes articulated above the ovary, usually coloured, often petal-like; lobes (3–)4–5(–6), usually imbricate, equal or often with the two interior slightly smaller
Corolla
Petals (petaloid appendages or scales) generally inserted in the throat of the calyx-tube, equal or double the number of the calyx-lobes, well developed, entire or divided, often reduced to small fleshy glands or lacking
Androecium
Stamens as many or twice as many as the calyx-lobes (rarely reduced to 2 or 1), in 1–2 whorls, the upper whorl antisepalous; anthers with short filaments or sessile, 2-thecous, usually introrse, rarely extrorse or horseshoe-like, opening by slits lengthwise; pollen globose, usually polyforate with “ croton-pattern ”
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 1–2(rarely 4–12)-locular, sessile or shortly stipitate; ovule 1 in each locule, usually pendulous, anatropous; style filiform, sometimes very short, terminal or lateral; stigma usually capitate, sometimes papillate
Nectaries
Disc hypogynous, membranous or fleshy, annular, cupular or scale-like, sometimes minute or lacking
Fruits
Fruit often a berry, sometimes a nut, drupe or loculicidal capsule, usually enclosed in the base of the persistent calyx-tube
Seeds
Seed usually with a caruncle-like appendage, outer coat thin or crustaceous, usually black, with or without endosperm; embryo straight; cotyledons flat or thickened, narrow or broad
Chemistry
Most thymelaeaceous plants contain toxic substances
[FWTA]

Thymelaeaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Trees, shrubs or rarely herbs; leaves opposite or alternate, entire, often small and ericoid; stipules absent
Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, usually hermaphrodite, sometimes capitulate
Calyx
Calyx tubular, more or less cylindric, sometimes long and slender; lobes 4–5, imbricate
Corolla
Petals present or absent, sometimes very small, mostly inserted at the mouth of the calyx-tube
Androecium
Stamens as many or twice as many as the calyx-lobes, inserted in the calyx-tube; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Nectaries
Disk hypogynous or absent
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 1–2-celled; ovule solitary in each cell, pendulous; style simple; stigma entire
Fruits
Fruit a nut, drupe or pyrene, usually enclosed in the base of the calyx-tube
Seeds
Seeds with or without endosperm; embryo straight
[NTK]

Klitgård, B.B. & Baracat, A. (2014). Neotropical Thymelaeaceae.

Morphology
Description

Habit: Trees or shrubs, sometimes lianas and herbs, often with strong smell; branches often flexible; bark fibrous and peeling in long strips.  Leaves opposite decussate or alternate , simple , entire , often clustered at the apex of branches; with silky fibres in the venation when broken; stipules absent; indumentum unicellular, silky.  Inflorescences axillary , terminal or cauliflorous , of thyrses often reduced to umbels, spikes or heads; bracts often present, sometimes forming an involucrum, rarely lacking.  Flowers hermaphroditic or unisexual, actinomorphic , parts usually fused into an elongated, urceolate or cup-shaped colourful floral tube sometimes described as a hypanthium (except in Tepuianthus), this white, yellow, green or pink; sepals 4-5, inserted at the rim of the tube, imbricate ; petaloid appendages (occasionally absent or if present, then usually on the inside of the perianth tube, sometimes forming an ring), equal in number to twice as many as sepals; stamens 3-5(-8), usually equal in number to sepals, twice as many or rarely many more than sepals, filaments usually fused to the upper portion the floral tube, rarely free (Tepuianthus); nectar disc often present around the ovary ; ovary superior , 1(-3)-loculate, one ovule per locule Fruits indehiscent drupes or nutlets, rarely loculicidal capsules.  Seeds 1-3, sometimes with a tail-like appendage , sometimes arillate.

General Description
Notes on delimitation
  • The family, now widely accepted as a basal lineage of Malvales (APG 2001 onwards), includes three groups: Thymelaeoideae (ca. 42 genera, worldwide, mainly subtropical), Octolepidoideae (8 genera in Asia and Australia), and Tepuianthus (1 genus restricted to the Guyanan Shield).  With regards to Tepuianthus Maguire & Steyermark (previously in its own monogeneric family Tepuianthaceae), recent molecular and morphological data suggest that this genus is sister to subfamily Octolepidoideae (Horn, 2004).  Aside from Tepuianthus and the closely related Octolepidoideae, molecular phylogenetic research within the family has mostly focused on the monophyletic subfamily Thymelaeoideae with particular emphasis on South African species of several genera and to a lesser extent, the large, mostly Australian genus, Pimelea Banks ex Gaertn.
Number of genera
  • 12 genera in the neotropics (see Distribution in the Neotropics above).
General notes
  • Daphne:  several species of Daphne, a genus native to the Old World, are cultivated in the warm temperate zones of the New World.
  • The tough phloem fibers are often twisted into cords and ropes, and the inner bark and fibers are sometimes used to make papers and textiles.
  • Fruit, leaves, and bark of many species are used as fish poison, and rarely also as a purgative.
  • The family is economically important for ramin and agar wood (gaharu), with many populations threatened with extinction due to unsustainable extraction; in addition, several species are important for horticulture.
  • Lace barktree: Lagetta lagetto (W. Wright) Nash from the Carribbean has bark made up of many layers which has been used as gauze, lace or muslin.
Status
  • Usually native, rarely introduced.
Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics

The Thymelaeaceae are composed of 46-50 genera and 890-900 species mostly confined to Africa, Australia, and Asia.  New World members of the family account for 12 native genera and about 115 species. Some species of the genus Daphne are introduced and cultivated. Most groups are tropical and subtropical, found in lowland to montane environments.

  • Daphne L.: several species of Daphne, a genus native to the Old World, are cultivated in the warm temperate zones of the New World.
  • Daphneopsis Mart. & Zucc.: about 65 species in the West Indies, Central and South America.
  • Dirca L.: three species in North America and Mexico.
  • Drapetes Banks ex Lam.: monospecific (D. muscosus Lam.) in southern Chile and Argentina, and the Falkland Islands.
  • Funifera Leandro ex C.A. Mey:  ca. three species in SE Brazil.
  • Goodallia Benth.: monospecific (G. guianensis Benth.) in northern South America.
  • Lagetta Juss.: three species in Cuba, St. Domingo and Jamaica.
  • Lasidenia Benth.:  two species (L. rupestris Benth. and L. ottohuberi T. Plowman & Nevling) from Amazonian Venezuela, Colombia, and Brazil.
  • Linodendron Griseb.: four species Cuba.
  • Lophostoma (Meisn.) Meisn.: four species in tropical South America.
  • Ovidia Meisn.:  only three species (O. pillopillo Meisn., O. andina Meisn. and O. sericea Antezana & Z.S.Rogers ) from southern Chile, Argentina and Bolivia.
  • Schoenobiblus Mart. & Zucc.: about 8 species in West Indies, E and W tropical South America.
  • Tepuianthus Maguire & Styerm.: 6-7 species concentrated on the Guyanan Shield in South America.
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Trees or shrubs with fibrousbark, branches often flexible.
  • Silky hairs often present.
  • Leaves simple, entire, often opposite but also alternate
  • Stipules usually lacking.
  • Flowers actinomorphic.
  • Floral parts united into a perianth tube
  • Ovarysuperior.
Key differences from similar families

The following features distinguish these families from the Thymelaeaceae:

  • Chrysobalanaceae - stipules present; glands usually present on petiole or leaf base; calyx and corolla present; petals free.
  • Clusiaceae - yellow sap present; opposite leaves usually with parallel venation; flowers unisexual; calyx and corolla present.
  • Ebenaceae - leaves distichous or spirally arranged with glands on the underside; calyx and corolla present.
  • Lamiaceae - leaves decussate; flowers zygomorphic; calyx and corolla present; stamens usually 2 or 4.
  • Rubiaceae - interpetiolar stipules present; stamens equal to the number of corolla lobes; ovary inferior.
Useful tips for generic identification

Key to the Latin American Genera of Thymelaeaceae - follow link

http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/neotropikey/families/keys/thymelaeaceae/index.htm

Literature
Important literature

Barringer, K. & Nevling, L.I. Jr. 2004. Thymelaeaceae. In: Smith, N., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W. and Heald, S.V. (eds.). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics, pp. 372-374. The New York Botanical Garden, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Berry, P.E. & Rogers, Z.S. 2005. Tepuianthaceae. In: P.E. Berry, K. Yatskievych & B.K. Holst (eds.). Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, vol. 9 (Rutaceae -Zygophyllaceae), pp. 297-299. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.

Herber, B.E. 2002[2003]. Thymelaeaceae. In: K. Kubitzki & C. Bayer (eds.). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. 5: Flowering Plants. Dicotyledons. Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales, pp. 373-396. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Heinig, K.H. 1951.  Studies in the floral Morphology of the Thymelaeaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 38(2): 113-132.

Horn, J.W. 2004. The morphology and relationships of the Sphaerosepalaceae (Malvales). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 144: 1-40.

Kubitzki, K. 2002[2003]. Tepuianthaceae. In: K. Kubitzki & C. Bayer (eds.). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. 5: Flowering Plants. Dicotyledons. Malvales, Capparales and Non-betalain Caryophyllales, pp. 371-372. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Maas, P.J.M. & Westra, L.Y. Th. 2005. Neotropical Plant Families. 3rd ed, 149 pp. A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell.

Nevling, L.I. Jr. 1959. A revision of the genus Daphnopsis.  Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 46:  257-358.

Nevling, L.I. Jr. 1963. A Revision of the genus Lophostoma (Thymelaeaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 44: 143-164.

Nevling, L.I. Jr. 1964. Note on the genus Ovidia. Darwiniana 13: 72-86.

Rogers, Z.S. 2009 onwards. A World Checklist of Thymelaeaceae (version 1). Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis. http://www.tropicos.org/project/Thymelaeaceae [accessed Sept. 16th 2013].

Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012.  http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/ [accessed Sept. 16th 2013].

Van der Bank, M., Fay, M.F. & Chase, M.W. 2002. Molecular phylogenetics of Thymelaeaceae with particular reference to African and Australian genera. Taxon 51: 329-339.

Wurdack, K.J. & Horn, J.W. 2001 [Abstract]. A reevaluation of the affinities of the Tepuianthaceae: molecular and morphological evidence for placement in Malvales. Botany 2001 Abstracts: 151.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

Stamens
Stamens as many or twice as many as the calyx lobes (rarely reduced to 2 or 1), in 1–2 whorls, those of the upper whorl opposite the calyx lobes; anthers with filaments or sessile, 2-thecous, usually introrse, rarely extrorse, or horseshoe-like, opening lengthwise by slits; pollen grains globose, usually polyporate with ‘Croton pattern’
Disc
Disk hypogynous, membranous or fleshy, annular, cupular or scale-like, sometimes slightly crenate, now and then minute or lacking
Ovary
Ovary superior, 1–2(rarely 4–12)-locular, sessile or shortly stipitate; ovules 1 per locule, usually pendulous, anatropous; style filiform, sometimes very short, terminal or lateral; stigma usually capitate, sometimes papillate
Distribution
A family of about 50 genera and c. 600 species, cosmopolitan but mainly widespread in the tropical and subtropical regions.
Habit
Trees or shrubs, sometimes lianes, rarely perennial herbs, very rarely annuals, sometimes dioecious or polygamous Trees or shrubs, sometimes lianes, rarely perennial herbs, very rarely annuals, sometimes dioecious or polygamous
Stem
Stems and branches with tough cortical, often shiny fibres Stems and branches with tough cortical, often shiny fibres
Leaves
Leaves alternate or opposite, sometimes whorled, sessile or shortly petiolate, simple, entire, small needle-like and 1-nerved to large flat and pinnately nerved, without stipules, herbaceous or coriaceous, sometimes glandular punctate Leaves alternate or opposite, sometimes whorled, sessile or shortly petiolate, simple, entire, small needle-like and 1-nerved to large flat and pinnately nerved, without stipules, herbaceous or coriaceous, sometimes glandular punctate
Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal or axillary, sessile or pedunculate, racemose (spikes, fascicles, umbels or heads), rarely 1-flowered, often with deciduous or persistent bracts Inflorescences terminal or axillary, sessile or pedunculate, racemose (spikes, fascicles, umbels or heads), rarely 1-flowered, often with deciduous or persistent bracts
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, regular or rarely slightly irregular, sweetly scented at night Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, regular or rarely slightly irregular, sweetly scented at night
Calyx
Calyx tubular or funnel-shaped, sometimes articulated above the ovary, usually coloured, often petal-like; lobes (3)4–5(6), usually imbricate, equal or often with the two interior slightly smaller Calyx tubular or funnel-shaped, sometimes articulated above the ovary, usually coloured, often petal-like; lobes (3)4–5(6), usually imbricate, equal or often with the two interior slightly smaller
Corolla
Petals generally inserted in the throat of the calyx tube, equalling or double the number of calyx lobes, well developed, entire or divided, sometimes ciliate, often reduced to small fleshy glands or lacking Petals generally inserted in the throat of the calyx tube, equalling or double the number of calyx lobes, well developed, entire or divided, sometimes ciliate, often reduced to small fleshy glands or lacking
Androecium
Stamens as many or twice as many as the calyx lobes (rarely reduced to 2 or 1), in 1–2 whorls, those of the upper whorl opposite the calyx lobes; anthers with filaments or sessile, 2-thecous, usually introrse, rarely extrorse, or horseshoe-like, opening lengthwise by slits; pollen grains globose, usually polyporate with ‘Croton pattern’
Nectaries
Disk hypogynous, membranous or fleshy, annular, cupular or scale-like, sometimes slightly crenate, now and then minute or lacking
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 1–2(rarely 4–12)-locular, sessile or shortly stipitate; ovules 1 per locule, usually pendulous, anatropous; style filiform, sometimes very short, terminal or lateral; stigma usually capitate, sometimes papillate
Fruits
Fruit often a berry, sometimes a nut, drupe or loculicidal capsule, usually enclosed in the base of the persistent calyx tube Fruit often a berry, sometimes a nut, drupe or loculicidal capsule, usually enclosed in the base of the persistent calyx tube
Seeds
Seed usually with a caruncle-like appendage, outer coat thin or crustaceous, usually black, with or without endosperm; embryo straight; cotyledons flat or thickened, narrow or broad Seed usually with a caruncle-like appendage, outer coat thin or crustaceous, usually black, with or without endosperm; embryo straight; cotyledons flat or thickened, narrow or broad.

Images

Thymelaeaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 76. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (as "Thymelaeae") (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0