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  • Rhamnaceae Juss.

This family is accepted.

[FZ]

Rhamnaceae, R. B. Drummond. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs, shrublets or lianes, glabrous or with simple hairs; branches rarely with coiled tendrils; leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple, entire to toothed, petiolate, penninerved or 3–5-nerved from the base; stipules present, rarely interpetiolar, sometimes spinescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers often in axillary cymes or umbels (rarely solitary), or in racemes arranged in terminal panicles or thyrses, bisexual (rarely unisexual), actinomorphic
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle flattish to obconic or hemispherical
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals (4) 5, valvate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals (4) 5 or absent, usually smaller than the sepals and unguiculate, cucullate, closely surrounding the stamens
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens (4) 5, antipetalous; filaments free; anthers 2-thecous (rarely 1-thecous), introrse, dehiscing longitudinally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Nectaries
Disk usually present and well developed, intrastaminal, perigynous, very variable in shape, large, filling the receptacle or cup-shaped with free margins, or lining the receptacle; ovary syncarpous, sessile, free or immersed in the disk, superior, subinferior or inferior, 2–4-locular; style entire or 2–4-lobed; ovules solitary in each loculus, erect, anatropous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a drupe or septicidal capsule or schizocarp, (1)2–3(4)-locular, sometimeswinged
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1 in each loculus; embryo large, straight; endosperm usually copious

[FWTA]

Rhamnaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
Trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, alternate or opposite; stipules mostly present
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers often cymose or fasciculate, small, hermaphrodite or polygamous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx-lobes valvate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4 or 5, small, or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens 4–5, opposite the petals; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Nectaries
Disk mostly present, perigynous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary sessile, superior or subinferior, 2–4-celled; ovules solitary or rarely paired, erect from the base, anatropous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit various, often drupaceous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds mostly with copious endosperm and large straight embryo

[FTEA]

Rhamnaceae, Marshall C. Johnston (University of Texas Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Trees, erect, climbing or scandent shrubs or lianes or subshrubs (or annual herbs but not in East Africa); tendrils present in Heliums and >i>Gouania
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, petiolate (or sessile but not in East Africa); blades penninerved or 3–5-nerved from the base, unlobed, serrate or crenate with each tooth or crenation usually associated with a minute gland, or entire
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules mostly present, free or interpetiolar or intra-axillary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers minute, regular, bisexual (and often strongly protandrous, or reportedly protogynous in >i>Maesopsis) or less commonly unisexual, peri-gynous or epigynous, 4- or usually 5-merous (6-merous very rarely and not in Africa), in basically cymose arrangements but the cymes often either reduced to fascicles (or even to solitary flowers) or arranged in short or elongate thyrses which in turn are sometimes disposed in leafy to leafless panicles; each flower with a cup lined with a thin intrastaminal nectariferous disk or the disk sometimes thickened near and/or produced beyond the rim of the cup and either free from the ovary or adnate to it
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals triangular, valvate in bud (this being one of the most useful traits to distinguish members of this family from those plants often confused with them) Sepals, petals and stamens attached at the rim of the cup
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals absent or usually present, enclosed by calyx in bud, nearly always shorter than the sepals at anthesis, each usually with a narrow base or claw plus an expanded hood-like or concave or amplectant body closely associated with the stamen
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium
Stamens bowed inward in bud, as many as, opposite to, usually shorter than and usually clasped or hooded by the petals
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium
Ovary syncarpous, with 2 or 3 (rarely 4 or 1) cells; ovule solitary in the cell, anatropous; style minute, rarely simple, usually with 2, 3 or rarely 4 or even more rarely 10 microscopic stigmatic lobes at apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit often dryish and splitting into 3 1-seeded parts at maturity (as in the first 5 genera treated here), or fleshy and with 2 or 3 free 1-seeded stones (as in >i>Rhamnus and >i>Scutia) or fleshy or dryish and with a single 1-, 2- or 3-seeded (or 4-seeded but not in Africa) stone (as in the last 4 genera here); placentation basal
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed with raphe dorsal or lateral; embryo large and straight, the cotyledons usually in planes tangential to the ovary-axis; endosperm in a thick or thin layer, rarely nearly absent but not in Africa, rarely ruminate but not in Africa

Rhamnaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 376. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (as "Rhamni") (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"
  • WCVP (2021). World Checklist of Vascular Plants, version 2.0. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://wcvp.science.kew.org/ Retrieved 28 April 2021

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/