1. Rhamnaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FZ]

Rhamnaceae, R. B. Drummond. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

Habit
Trees, shrubs, shrublets or lianes, glabrous or with simple hairs; branches rarely with coiled tendrils; leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple, entire to toothed, petiolate, penninerved or 3–5-nerved from the base; stipules present, rarely interpetiolar, sometimes spinescent
Flowers
Flowers often in axillary cymes or umbels (rarely solitary), or in racemes arranged in terminal panicles or thyrses, bisexual (rarely unisexual), actinomorphic
Receptacle
Receptacle flattish to obconic or hemispherical
Calyx
Sepals (4) 5, valvate
Corolla
Petals (4) 5 or absent, usually smaller than the sepals and unguiculate, cucullate, closely surrounding the stamens
Androecium
Stamens (4) 5, antipetalous; filaments free; anthers 2-thecous (rarely 1-thecous), introrse, dehiscing longitudinally
Nectaries
Disk usually present and well developed, intrastaminal, perigynous, very variable in shape, large, filling the receptacle or cup-shaped with free margins, or lining the receptacle; ovary syncarpous, sessile, free or immersed in the disk, superior, subinferior or inferior, 2–4-locular; style entire or 2–4-lobed; ovules solitary in each loculus, erect, anatropous
Fruits
Fruit a drupe or septicidal capsule or schizocarp, (1)2–3(4)-locular, sometimeswinged
Seeds
Seeds 1 in each loculus; embryo large, straight; endosperm usually copious
[FWTA]

Rhamnaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Habit
Trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing
Leaves
Leaves simple, alternate or opposite; stipules mostly present
Flowers
Flowers often cymose or fasciculate, small, hermaphrodite or polygamous
Calyx
Calyx-lobes valvate
Corolla
Petals 4 or 5, small, or absent
Androecium
Stamens 4–5, opposite the petals; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Nectaries
Disk mostly present, perigynous
Gynoecium
Ovary sessile, superior or subinferior, 2–4-celled; ovules solitary or rarely paired, erect from the base, anatropous
Fruits
Fruit various, often drupaceous
Seeds
Seeds mostly with copious endosperm and large straight embryo
[FTEA]

Rhamnaceae, Marshall C. Johnston (University of Texas Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1972

Habit
Trees, erect, climbing or scandent shrubs or lianes or subshrubs (or annual herbs but not in East Africa); tendrils present in Heliums and >i>Gouania
Leaves
Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, petiolate (or sessile but not in East Africa); blades penninerved or 3–5-nerved from the base, unlobed, serrate or crenate with each tooth or crenation usually associated with a minute gland, or entire
Stipules
Stipules mostly present, free or interpetiolar or intra-axillary
Flowers
Flowers minute, regular, bisexual (and often strongly protandrous, or reportedly protogynous in >i>Maesopsis) or less commonly unisexual, peri-gynous or epigynous, 4- or usually 5-merous (6-merous very rarely and not in Africa), in basically cymose arrangements but the cymes often either reduced to fascicles (or even to solitary flowers) or arranged in short or elongate thyrses which in turn are sometimes disposed in leafy to leafless panicles; each flower with a cup lined with a thin intrastaminal nectariferous disk or the disk sometimes thickened near and/or produced beyond the rim of the cup and either free from the ovary or adnate to it
Calyx
Sepals triangular, valvate in bud (this being one of the most useful traits to distinguish members of this family from those plants often confused with them) Sepals, petals and stamens attached at the rim of the cup
Corolla
Petals absent or usually present, enclosed by calyx in bud, nearly always shorter than the sepals at anthesis, each usually with a narrow base or claw plus an expanded hood-like or concave or amplectant body closely associated with the stamen
Androecium
Stamens bowed inward in bud, as many as, opposite to, usually shorter than and usually clasped or hooded by the petals
Gynoecium
Ovary syncarpous, with 2 or 3 (rarely 4 or 1) cells; ovule solitary in the cell, anatropous; style minute, rarely simple, usually with 2, 3 or rarely 4 or even more rarely 10 microscopic stigmatic lobes at apex
Fruits
Fruit often dryish and splitting into 3 1-seeded parts at maturity (as in the first 5 genera treated here), or fleshy and with 2 or 3 free 1-seeded stones (as in >i>Rhamnus and >i>Scutia) or fleshy or dryish and with a single 1-, 2- or 3-seeded (or 4-seeded but not in Africa) stone (as in the last 4 genera here); placentation basal
Seeds
Seed with raphe dorsal or lateral; embryo large and straight, the cotyledons usually in planes tangential to the ovary-axis; endosperm in a thick or thin layer, rarely nearly absent but not in Africa, rarely ruminate but not in Africa

Images

Rhamnaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 376. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (as "Rhamni") (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/