According to Flora Zambesiaca[FZ]
Rhamnaceae, R. B. Drummond. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966
- Trees, shrubs, shrublets or lianes, glabrous or with simple hairs; branches rarely with coiled tendrils; leaves alternate or rarely opposite, simple, entire to toothed, petiolate, penninerved or 3–5-nerved from the base; stipules present, rarely interpetiolar, sometimes spinescent
- Flowers often in axillary cymes or umbels (rarely solitary), or in racemes arranged in terminal panicles or thyrses, bisexual (rarely unisexual), actinomorphic
- Receptacle flattish to obconic or hemispherical
- Sepals (4) 5, valvate
- Petals (4) 5 or absent, usually smaller than the sepals and unguiculate, cucullate, closely surrounding the stamens
- Stamens (4) 5, antipetalous; filaments free; anthers 2-thecous (rarely 1-thecous), introrse, dehiscing longitudinally
- Disk usually present and well developed, intrastaminal, perigynous, very variable in shape, large, filling the receptacle or cup-shaped with free margins, or lining the receptacle; ovary syncarpous, sessile, free or immersed in the disk, superior, subinferior or inferior, 2–4-locular; style entire or 2–4-lobed; ovules solitary in each loculus, erect, anatropous
- Fruit a drupe or septicidal capsule or schizocarp, (1)2–3(4)-locular, sometimeswinged
- Seeds 1 in each loculus; embryo large, straight; endosperm usually copious
According to Flora of West Tropical Africa[FWTA]
Rhamnaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958
- Trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing
- Leaves simple, alternate or opposite; stipules mostly present
- Flowers often cymose or fasciculate, small, hermaphrodite or polygamous
- Calyx-lobes valvate
- Petals 4 or 5, small, or absent
- Stamens 4–5, opposite the petals; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
- Disk mostly present, perigynous
- Ovary sessile, superior or subinferior, 2–4-celled; ovules solitary or rarely paired, erect from the base, anatropous
- Fruit various, often drupaceous
- Seeds mostly with copious endosperm and large straight embryo
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa[FTEA]
Rhamnaceae, Marshall C. Johnston (University of Texas Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1972
- Trees, erect, climbing or scandent shrubs or lianes or subshrubs (or annual herbs but not in East Africa); tendrils present in Heliums and >i>Gouania
- Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, petiolate (or sessile but not in East Africa); blades penninerved or 3–5-nerved from the base, unlobed, serrate or crenate with each tooth or crenation usually associated with a minute gland, or entire
- Stipules mostly present, free or interpetiolar or intra-axillary
- Flowers minute, regular, bisexual (and often strongly protandrous, or reportedly protogynous in >i>Maesopsis) or less commonly unisexual, peri-gynous or epigynous, 4- or usually 5-merous (6-merous very rarely and not in Africa), in basically cymose arrangements but the cymes often either reduced to fascicles (or even to solitary flowers) or arranged in short or elongate thyrses which in turn are sometimes disposed in leafy to leafless panicles; each flower with a cup lined with a thin intrastaminal nectariferous disk or the disk sometimes thickened near and/or produced beyond the rim of the cup and either free from the ovary or adnate to it
- Sepals triangular, valvate in bud (this being one of the most useful traits to distinguish members of this family from those plants often confused with them) Sepals, petals and stamens attached at the rim of the cup
- Petals absent or usually present, enclosed by calyx in bud, nearly always shorter than the sepals at anthesis, each usually with a narrow base or claw plus an expanded hood-like or concave or amplectant body closely associated with the stamen
- Stamens bowed inward in bud, as many as, opposite to, usually shorter than and usually clasped or hooded by the petals
- Ovary syncarpous, with 2 or 3 (rarely 4 or 1) cells; ovule solitary in the cell, anatropous; style minute, rarely simple, usually with 2, 3 or rarely 4 or even more rarely 10 microscopic stigmatic lobes at apex
- Fruit often dryish and splitting into 3 1-seeded parts at maturity (as in the first 5 genera treated here), or fleshy and with 2 or 3 free 1-seeded stones (as in >i>Rhamnus and >i>Scutia) or fleshy or dryish and with a single 1-, 2- or 3-seeded (or 4-seeded but not in Africa) stone (as in the last 4 genera here); placentation basal
- Seed with raphe dorsal or lateral; embryo large and straight, the cotyledons usually in planes tangential to the ovary-axis; endosperm in a thick or thin layer, rarely nearly absent but not in Africa, rarely ruminate but not in Africa
- Adolphia Meisn.
- Alphitonia Reissek ex Endl.
- Alvimiantha Grey-Wilson
- Ampelozizyphus Ducke
- Araracuara Fern.Alonso
- Auerodendron Urb.
- Bathiorhamnus Capuron
- Berchemia Neck. ex DC.
- Berchemiella Nakai
- Blackallia C.A.Gardner
- Ceanothus L.
- Colletia Comm. ex Juss.
- Colubrina Rich. ex Brongn.
- Condalia Cav.
- Crumenaria Mart.
- Cryptandra Sm.
- Discaria Hook.
- Doerpfeldia Urb.
- Emmenosperma F.Muell.
- Frangula Mill.
- Gouania Jacq.
- Granitites Rye
- Helinus E.Mey. ex Endl.
- Hovenia Thunb.
- Jaffrea H.C.Hopkins & Pillon
- Johnstonalia Tortosa
- Karwinskia Zucc.
- Kentrothamnus Suess. & Overkott
- Krugiodendron Urb.
- Lasiodiscus Hook.f.
- Maesopsis Engl.
- Nesiota Hook.f.
- Noltea Rchb.
- Ochetophila Poepp. ex Endl.
- Oreorhamnus Ridl.
- Paliurus Mill.
- Papistylus Kellermann, Rye & K.R.Thiele
- Phylica L.
- Polianthion K.R.Thiele
- Pomaderris Labill.
- Reissekia Endl.
- Retanilla (DC.) Brongn.
- Reynosia Griseb.
- Rhamnella Miq.
- Rhamnidium Reissek
- Rhamnus L.
- Sageretia Brongn.
- Sarcomphalus P.Browne
- Schistocarpaea F.Muell.
- Scutia (Comm. ex DC.) Brongn.
- Serichonus K.R.Thiele
- Siegfriedia C.A.Gardner
- Smythea Seem.
- Spyridium Fenzl
- Stenanthemum Reissek
- Trevoa Miers ex Hook.
- Trichocephalus Brongn.
- Trymalium Fenzl
- Ventilago Gaertn.
- Ziziphus Mill.
First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 376. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (as "Rhamni") (1789)
- APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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