1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus longisetus M.C.Johnst.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tropical Africa to Arabian Peninsula.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; mat forming. Rhizomes elongated. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 15-90 cm long. Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades flat, or conduplicate; 7-15 cm long; 2-6 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; oblong, or ovate, or globose; 2-12 cm long; 1-2 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; with lateral stumps on axis. Panicle axis angular; smooth; pilose; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1(-4) in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; cuneate; 40-70 mm long; base bluntly stipitate (1mm). Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; with longest bristle scarcely emergent; 40-70 mm long; terete; flexible; plumose.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; cuspidate; 9-14 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; cuspidate; 9-14 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure, or two; dissimilar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblate; 0.5-1 mm long; 0.05-0.1 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 0-1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex obtuse. Upper glume lanceolate, or ovate; 3.5-6 mm long; 0.33-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume apex acute, or acuminate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male, or barren; with palea, or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 7-11 -veined; scaberulous; rough on veins; acute, or acuminate. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 9-14 mm long; membranous; without keel; 5-7 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex acute. Palea membranous.
    Flowers
    Lodicules absent. Anthers 3; 4-5 mm long; anther tip apiculate. Styles 4 mm long; connate below; 1 of their length connate.
    Distribution
    Europe: southeastern. Africa: north, Macaronesia, northeast tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: Arabia. Asia-tropical: India and Malesia. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. Pacific: north-central. North America: northeast USA, southwest USA, south-central USA, and Mexico. South America: Caribbean, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. FTA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Perennial
    Inflorescences
    Handsome plumose involucres up to 7 cm. long.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Andes, Llanura del Caribe.
    Habit
    Hierba

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Eritrea, Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Algeria, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Azores, Bolivia, Brazil Southeast, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Colombia, Colorado, Cuba, Cyprus, Egypt, Free State, Georgia, Greece, Hawaii, India, Italy, Jamaica, Jawa, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Madagascar, Madeira, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Morocco, Myanmar, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Northern Provinces, Peru, Réunion, Sardegna, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Texas, Tunisia, Uruguay

    Cenchrus longisetus M.C.Johnst. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Schimper [316], Ethiopia Pennisetum villosum K000281187 isotype
    Schimper [316], Ethiopia Pennisetum villosum K000281186 isotype
    Schimper [1989], Ethiopia Pennisetum villosum K000281185
    Ruppel, Ethiopia Pennisetum villosum K000281184
    Sendusky, T. [115], Brazil Pennisetum villosum K001106085

    First published in Sida 1: 182 (1963)

    Accepted by

    • Engelmaier, P. & Wilhalm, T. (2018). Alien grasses (Poaceae) in the flora of the Eastern Alps Neilreichia 9: 177-245.

    Not accepted by

    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. [Cited as Pennisetum villosum.]
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne. [Cited as Pennisetum villosum.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Veldkamp, J.F. (2014). A revision of Cenchrus incl. Pennisetum (Gramineae) in Malesia with some general nomenclatural notes Blumea 59: 59-75.
    • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Cope, T.A., Knees, S.G. & Miller, A.G. (2007). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 5(1): 1-387. Edinburgh University Press.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Boulos, L. (2005). Flora of Egypt 4: 1-617. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1995). Flora of Somalia 4: i-ii, 1-298. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Damanakis, M. & Scholz, H. (1990). Phytogeographical notes on the Poaceae of Greece Willdenowia 19: 413-423.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0