1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Cenchrus L.
      1. Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fernald

        This species is accepted, and its native range is N. America.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 10-90 cm long. Leaf-sheaths keeled; outer margin hairy. Leaf-sheath oral hairs ciliate. Ligule a fringe of hairs; 0.7-1.7 mm long. Leaf-blades 6.3-18.7 cm long; 3-7.2 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pilose; sparsely hairy.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; dense (internodes 2-5mm); 4.1-10.2 cm long; 1.2-2.2 cm wide. Primary panicle branches accrescent to a central axis; burrs 6-18 in number; with sessile scars on axis. Panicle axis angular; scaberulous; bearing deciduous spikelet clusters. Spikelets subtended by an involucre. Fertile spikelets sessile; 2-3 in the cluster. Involucre composed of bristles; connate into a cup below; globose; 8.3-11.9 mm long; base obconical; base pubescent. Involucral bristles deciduous with the fertile spikelets; numerous; emerging irregularly from body of a burr; 46-75 in principal whorl; 3.5-7 mm long; flattened; without grooves, or grooved on the face; rigid; retrorsely scaberulous; pubescent; spinose.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 6-7.8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; dorsally compressed; acuminate; 6-7.8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 1.5-3.8 mm long; 0.25-0.5 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 4.4-6 mm long; 0.75 length of spikelet; membranous; without keels; 3-5 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret ovate; 5-6.5 mm long; 0.8 length of spikelet; membranous; 3-7 -veined; acute. Fertile lemma ovate; 5.8-7.6 mm long; coriaceous; much thinner on margins; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins flat. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea coriaceous.
    Flowers
    Anthers 0.8-2.1 mm long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp.
    Distribution
    Australasia: Australia. North America: eastern Canada. South America: Caribbean and southern South America.
    Reference
    Paniceae. De Lisle.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, British Columbia, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Québec, Rhode I., South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

    Introduced into:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bermuda, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, France, Greece, Haiti, Iran, Italy, Leeward Is., Morocco, New South Wales, North Caucasus, Palestine, Puerto Rico, Romania, Sicilia, Transcaucasus, Venezuela, Yugoslavia

    Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fernald appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Rhodora 45: 388 (1943)

    Accepted by

    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Verloove, F. & Sánchez Gullón, E. (2012). A taxonomic recision of non-native Cenchrus s.str. (Panicae, Poaceae) in the Mediterranean area Willdenowia 42: 67-75.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Verloove, F. & Sánchez Gullón, E. (2012). A taxonomic recision of non-native Cenchrus s.str. (Panicae, Poaceae) in the Mediterranean area Willdenowia 42: 67-75.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2006). Conspectus Florae Caucasi 2: 1-466. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0