1. Family: Burseraceae Kunth
    1. Canarium L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to W. Pacific.

    [FZ]

    Burseraceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Habit
    Dioecious trees.
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, leaflets in up to c. 24 pairs, usually entire.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of axillary paniculate cymes, peduncle usually elongated; cymules surrounded by persistent or caducous bracts.
    Flowers
    Flowers unisexual.
    Calyx
    Calyx infundibuliform, campanulate or saucer-shaped, lobes 3.
    Corolla
    Petals 3, usually imbricate below but valvate towards the apex.
    Stamens
    Stamens 6, free or connate below, inserted on or outside the disk or sometimes, in male flowers, inserted on the disk which then resembles an androphore, smaller and infertile in female flowers.
    Disc
    Disk variable in form, sometimes pubescent.
    Pistil
    Ovary (absent or vestigial in male flowers) 3-locular, loculi 2-ovulate; style ± elongated; stigma subcapitate, ± 3-lobed.
    Fruits
    Fruit a drupe; pericarp fleshy; endocarp crustaceous, ± trigonous, 3-locular with 3 seeds or 2 loculi sometimes abortive.
    Seeds
    Seed with 3-foliolate or palmatifid, plicate or conduplicate cotyledons.
    [FTEA]

    Burseraceae, J.B. Gillett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Trees, usually dioecious but occasional hermaphrodite flowers may occur
    Leaves
    Leaves imparipinnate, with opposite, usually entire, leaflets; stipules present in the Flora species but usually very caducous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences long-pedunculate axillary panicles of cymes, the cymules subtended by persistent or caducous bracts
    Calyx
    Calyx funnel-, bell- or saucer-shaped, 3-lobed
    Corolla
    Petals 3, usually imbricate below and valvate above
    Stamens
    Stamens 6, inserted outside or on the edge of the disc, smaller and probably infertile in ♀ flowers
    Disc
    Disc variable, usually a short tube which, when the stamens are attached to its rim, could be taken for the united bases of the filaments
    Pistil
    Ovary (absent or vestigial in ♂ flowers) 3-locular, with 2 ovules in each locule; style short; stigma subcapitate, ± 3-lobed Fruit an indehiscent drupe, the fleshy pericarp (composed of the united ectocarp and mesocarp) enclosing a single ± trigonous 3-locular stone (the endocarp) whose sides open like lids when the seeds germinate
    Seeds
    Cotyledons digitately 3-foliolate or palmatifid, plicate or conduplicate. Seeds 3 (1 per locule) or fewer by abortion

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Cuba, Japan, Society Is., Taiwan, Trinidad-Tobago

    Canarium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    30728.000
    Philippines 51347.000
    Morren [2923], New Guinea 60070.000
    Pierre, L. [690], Vietnam K000651633
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 9046], Singapore K001132135
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 9046], Singapore K001132136
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 9047], Malaysia K001132137

    First published in Herb. Amb.: 9 (1754)

    Accepted by

    • Daly, D.C., Raharimampionona, J. & Federman, S. (2015). A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar Adansonia, sér. 3, 37: 277-345.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Engl. in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 19A: 443 (1931).
    • —F.T.A. 1: 327
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Amoen. Acad. 4: 121 (1759).
    • Herb. Amboin.: 10 (1754)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Leenh. in Blumea 9: 275–475 (1959)
    • Amoen. Acad. 4: 121 (1759)
    • Herb. Amb.: 10 (1754)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0