Skip to main content
This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to W. Pacific.
Canarium sp (Burseraceae)

[FZ]

Burseraceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Dioecious trees.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves imparipinnate, leaflets in up to c. 24 pairs, usually entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences of axillary paniculate cymes, peduncle usually elongated; cymules surrounded by persistent or caducous bracts.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers unisexual.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx infundibuliform, campanulate or saucer-shaped, lobes 3.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 3, usually imbricate below but valvate towards the apex.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 6, free or connate below, inserted on or outside the disk or sometimes, in male flowers, inserted on the disk which then resembles an androphore, smaller and infertile in female flowers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk variable in form, sometimes pubescent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary (absent or vestigial in male flowers) 3-locular, loculi 2-ovulate; style ± elongated; stigma subcapitate, ± 3-lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a drupe; pericarp fleshy; endocarp crustaceous, ± trigonous, 3-locular with 3 seeds or 2 loculi sometimes abortive.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seed with 3-foliolate or palmatifid, plicate or conduplicate cotyledons.

[FTEA]

Burseraceae, J.B. Gillett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

Morphology General Habit
Trees, usually dioecious but occasional hermaphrodite flowers may occur
Morphology Leaves
Leaves imparipinnate, with opposite, usually entire, leaflets; stipules present in the Flora species but usually very caducous
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences long-pedunculate axillary panicles of cymes, the cymules subtended by persistent or caducous bracts
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx funnel-, bell- or saucer-shaped, 3-lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 3, usually imbricate below and valvate above
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 6, inserted outside or on the edge of the disc, smaller and probably infertile in ♀ flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disc variable, usually a short tube which, when the stamens are attached to its rim, could be taken for the united bases of the filaments
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary (absent or vestigial in ♂ flowers) 3-locular, with 2 ovules in each locule; style short; stigma subcapitate, ± 3-lobed Fruit an indehiscent drupe, the fleshy pericarp (composed of the united ectocarp and mesocarp) enclosing a single ± trigonous 3-locular stone (the endocarp) whose sides open like lids when the seeds germinate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Cotyledons digitately 3-foliolate or palmatifid, plicate or conduplicate. Seeds 3 (1 per locule) or fewer by abortion

Native to:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Burkina, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Cuba, Japan, Marianas, Marshall Is., Society Is., Taiwan, Trinidad-Tobago

Canarium L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
30728.000
Philippines 51347.000
Morren [2923], New Guinea 60070.000
Pierre, L. [690], Vietnam K000651633
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 9046], Singapore K001132136
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 9047], Malaysia K001132137
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 9046], Singapore K001132135

First published in Herb. Amb.: 9 (1754)

Accepted by

  • Daly, D.C., Raharimampionona, J. & Federman, S. (2015). A revision of Canarium L. (Burseraceae) in Madagascar Adansonia, sér. 3, 37: 277-345.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Engl. in E. & P. Pflanzenfam. 19A: 443 (1931).
  • —F.T.A. 1: 327

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Amoen. Acad. 4: 121 (1759).
  • Herb. Amboin.: 10 (1754)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Amoen. Acad. 4: 121 (1759)
  • Herb. Amb.: 10 (1754)
  • Leenh. in Blumea 9: 275–475 (1959)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0