1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Phaseolus L.
      1. Phaseolus vulgaris L.

        Phaseolus vulgaris is widely cultivated for its delicious seeds which add flavour and protein to the diets of millions of people throughout the world. This ancient crop belongs in the legume family and like many other legumes it has an ability to fix nitrogen from the air through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria housed in root nodules. As a result, common bean is high in protein and in many parts of the world it is considered the 'meat of the poor'. The impressive diversity of colours, textures and tastes of the common bean make it a popular choice for people everywhere. 

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill and B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Annual climber or suberect herb 0.2–several m tall.
    Stem
    Stems glabrescent or pubescent.
    Leaflets
    Leaflets 3, 4.5–15 × 2.5–6.5 cm, ovate or ovate-rhombic, the laterals oblique, all leaflets acuminate, ± rounded at the base, pubescent; petiole 4–9 cm long; rhachis 10–24 mm long; petiolules 1.5–2.5 mm long; stipules 4 mm long, lanceolate, ribbed.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 1–3-flowered or flowers solitary, shorter than the leaves; peduncles 0–5 cm long; pedicels 3–10 mm long; bracts 3 mm long, ovate; bracteoles conspicuous, 5–6 × 2.5–3.5 mm, ovate-lanceolate, conspicuously veined.
    Calyx
    Calyx puberulous; tube 2–3 mm long; lobes c. 1 mm long, the upper pair joined to form a slightly emarginate lip.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, yellowish, purple or dark or pale pink. Standard 1(19) × 11 mm, oblate-oblong, glabrous; keel c. 22 mm long, spirally incurved.
    Fruits
    Pods 11–12.5(20) × 1–1.3 cm, linear-lanceolate, (5)10–12-seeded (sometimes fewer by abortion), compressed, beaked, puberulous or glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds 9–20 × 3–12 × 4–11 mm, oblong-ellipsoid or reniform, compressed.
    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Phaseolus vulgaris is widely cultivated for its delicious seeds which add flavour and protein to the diets of millions of people throughout the world. This ancient crop belongs in the legume family and like many other legumes it has an ability to fix nitrogen from the air through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria housed in root nodules. As a result, common bean is high in protein and in many parts of the world it is considered the 'meat of the poor'. The impressive diversity of colours, textures and tastes of the common bean make it a popular choice for people everywhere. 

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    The common bean originated in Central and South America where small seeded wild types can still be found growing today. Domestication occurred in Central America (Mexico and Guatemala) and in South America (Peru) independently leading to two distinct genepools.

    The common bean is an ancient crop and archaeological evidence indicates that it was being cultivated as early as 6,000 BC. The crop was brought to Africa in the 16th century by Portuguese traders and carried to high altitude regions by slave trading caravans and merchants.

    Today, common bean is a globally important crop, especially in North and South America, Europe and Africa. They are less common in India, where other pulses are preferred. 

    Description

    Overview: Phaseolus vulgaris is an annual herb up to 3 metres long which can be found growing in climbing, trailing, or erect and bushy forms. It has a well developed taproot with many lateral roots. 

    Leaves: The leaves are arranged alternately along the stem; each leaf supported by a petiole (appendage which connects the leaf to the stem) which is grooved above and thickened at the base and can be up to 30 cm long. Each leaf is composed of 3 ovate (2 dimensional egg-shaped) leaflets, up to 20 cm x 15 cm in size. 

    Flowers: The flowers are arranged alone or in pairs along an unbranched axis (a raceme). The flowers are white, pale purple or red-purple and are papilionaceous, resembling those of the pea, Pisum sativum . Each flower has 10 stamens (male reproductive organs), nine of which are fused into a partial tube, with the tenth stamen free. The ovary (female reproductive organ) is positioned above the sepals, petals and stamens. The style is upturned and spiralled, with a collar of fine hairs below the stigma. 

    Fruits: The fruit is a linear pod up to 20 cm long which is fleshy when immature and can be green, yellow, red or purple and contains up to 12 seeds. The seeds are up to 2 cm long and can be rounded, kidney-shaped, ellipsoid or oblong. They vary in colour from black, brown and yellow types to red, white, speckled and flecked forms. 

    Uses

    Common bean is an important food crop adding flavour, protein and essential vitamins and minerals (such as iron and folic acid) to the diets of millions of people throughout the world. The dry mature seed are mostly eaten as a pulse and the immature pods and seeds as a vegetable. Common bean is often considered the 'meat of the poor' and forms the main protein source for people in many countries although it is also popular with wealthier consumers. 

    In tropical Africa the seeds are typically boiled with seasoning and oil. They can also be eaten mashed or made into soup. The seeds of the common bean are canned in many parts of the world, either alone or in tomato sauce. When food is scarce some people consume the leaves as a vegetable, but the majority of cultivars have leaves which are too tough to be eaten. In Java, the young leaves of the plant are eaten as a salad.

    In temperate regions it is more common to grow Phaseolus vulgaris for its green immature pods (French bean) which are canned, frozen or eaten fresh.

    As well as being an excellent food source for humans, the crop can be used as fodder to feed animals.

    Common bean plays an important role in folk medicine and is said to relieve a variety of ailments from acne and diabetes to diarrhoea, eczema and even hiccups.

    Some unusual uses for Phaseolus vulgaris include using the leaves to trap bedbugs in houses (the insects get caught on the leaf's microscopic hairs (trichomes), and using the beans to tell fortunes, a method of divination known as favomancy. 

    Crop wild relatives of common bean

    The Millennium Seed Bank and the Global Crop Diversity Trust are engaged in a ten-year project, called 'Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change'. The project aims to protect, collect and prepare the wild relatives of 29 key food crops, including common bean, so that they are available to pre-breeders for the development of new varieties that are more resilient to the effects of climate change.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plants worldwide, focusing on those plants which are under threat and those which are of most use in the future. Once seeds have been collected they are dried, packaged and stored at -20°C in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds: Average 1,000 seed weight = 319 g

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: One

    Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox (the seeds of this plant can be dried to low moisture contents without significantly reducing their viability. This means they are suitable for long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)

    Germination testing: Successful

    This species at Kew

    Pressed and dried specimens of common bean are held in Kew's Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. Details and images of some of these specimens can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

    Distribution
    Mexico, Peru
    Ecology
    Phaseolus vulgarism grows best in well-drained soils up to 0.5 metres deep at an optimum pH of 6.0-7.5.
    Conservation
    Widespread in cultivation.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Annual climber or suberect herb 0·2–several m. tall.
    Stem
    Stems glabrescent or pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaflets 3, ovate or ovate-rhombic, the laterals oblique, 4·5–15 cm. long, 2·5–6·5 cm. wide, acuminate, ± rounded at the base, pubescent; petiole 4–9 cm. long; rhachis 1·2–4 cm. long; petiolules 1·5–2·5 mm. long; stipules lanceolate, 4 mm. long, ribbed.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 1–3-flowered or flowers solitary, shorter than the leaves; peduncles 0–5 cm. long; pedicels 3–10 mm. long; bracts ovate, 3 mm. long; bracteoles conspicuous, ovate-lanceolate, 5–6 mm. long, 2·5–3·5 mm. wide, conspicuously veined.
    Calyx
    Calyx puberulous; tube 2–3 mm. long; lobes ± 1 mm. long, the upper pair joined to form a slightly emarginate lip.
    Corolla
    Standard oblate-oblong, 1(–1·9) cm. long, 1·1 cm. wide, glabrous; keel spirally incurved, ± 2·2 cm. long. Corolla white, yellowish, purple or dark or pale pink.
    Fruits
    Pods linear-lanceolate, (5–)10–12-seeded, 11–12·5(–20) cm. long, 1–1·3 cm. wide, compressed, beaked, puberulous or glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds oblong-ellipsoid or reniform, compressed, longest dimension 0·9–2 cm., shorter dimension 0·3–1·2 cm., 0·4–1·1 cm. thick.
    Habitat
    Cultivations, also as an escape in waste places; 1750–1950 m.
    Distribution
    K3 T2 T3 T7 U2 probably in every districtof American origin, now the most widely cultivated bean throughout the world
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Cultivated
    Habit
    Annual, Climbing/Not climbing, Herb
    Vernacular
    Adi Lobya, Bakla, Bohne, Bruna Bonor, Chichees Buurtzag, Common Bean, Common Haricot, Darzines Pupeles, Dwarf Bean, Egel Shosh, Fagiolo Comune, Fasol Obyknovennaya, Fasola Zwykla, Fasole Comuna, Fasole Urketoare, Fasolya Zvychainaya, Feijao, Feijoeiro, Fi

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá

    Introduced into:

    Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia, Buryatiya, Cameroon, Cayman Is., Central European Rus, Chad, Chita, Colombia, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Illinois, India, Iraq, Irkutsk, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kuril Is., Leeward Is., Malaya, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Senegal, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yakutskiya, Zambia, Zaïre

    Common Names

    English
    Common bean

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2005 Queiroz, L.P. [10733], Brazil K000931233
    Apr 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1555], Cameroon K000027482
    Hinton, G.B. [5605], Mexico K000118684
    Hinton, G.B. [11567], Mexico K000118629
    Hinton, G.B. [11551], Mexico K000118630
    Hinton, G.B. [11684], Mexico K000118631
    Philcox, D. [4146], Brazil K000931232
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 5595] K001121410
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5595] K001121403
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5595] K001121404
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5595] K001121405
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5595] K001121406
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5595] K001121407
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5595] K001121408
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5595] K001121409
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5595] K001121411
    Sinclair [86] Phaseolus oblongus K000117552 Unknown type material
    Phaseolus multiflorus 15501.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 723 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mackinder, B., Pasquet, R., Polhill, R. & Verdcourt, B. (2001). Flora Zambesiaca 3(5): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1974). Flora of Iraq 3: 1-662. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
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    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Bhellum, B.L. (2012). Flora exotica of Jammu and Kashmir (List- I) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 36: 33-45.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
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    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mackinder, B., Pasquet, R., Polhill, R. & Verdcourt, B. (2001). Flora Zambesiaca 3(5): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Yakovlev, G.P., Sytin, A.K. & Roskov, Y.R. (1996). Legumes of Northern Eurasia. A checklist: 1-724. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0